The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, commonly known as the New JEWEL Movement (NJM), was a Grenadian political party led by Maurice Bishop and informed by Marxist-Leninist principles. Established in 1973, the NJM existed as an opposition political party before overthrowing the government of Eric Gairy in a 1979 armed revolution. In 1983, an American-led invasion (‘Operation Urgent Fury’) saw the end of the New Jewel experiment and the restoration of the pre-revolution Grenadian constitution.