Umkhonto we Sizwe (‘Spear of the Nation’; abbreviated as MK) was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), operating from 1961 to 1990. MK was founded following the 1960 Sharpeville Massacre and represents a turn away from non-violent struggle in South Africa. Branded as a ‘terrorist’ organisation by both the South African government and the United States, its members included Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Chris Hani, Joe Slovo and Thabo Mbeki, among others..