Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Ariffin, Noor Farida. 1947- . Born in Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia. Educated in law at the Inns of the Courts, London, 1970. Joined the Judicial and Legal Service, Malaysia, in 1971, where she served for 25 years. Director...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: bin Mohamad, Mahathir. 1925- . Born in Alor Setar, British Malaya (now Malaysia). Graduated from the University of Malaya, 1947. Practiced as a medical doctor before entering politics with the United Malays National...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Jaafar, Kamil (Tan Sri Datuk Ahmad Kamil bin Jaafar). 1937- . Born in Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia. Graduated from the University of Malaya, 1962. Career in Administrative and Diplomatic Service, including embassy appointments in...
Political Affairs Division
The Political Affairs Division (PAD) is the section of the Commonwealth Secretariat that coordinates activities between the Commonwealth, its member country governments and partner international organisations. It focuses its work on the prevention or resolution of political conflict at the invitation of a member country, and also supports the development of democratic processes and institutions.
The Group of 15 (G15) was established at the 1989 Non-Aligned Movement Summit meeting in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and brings together countries from Latin America, Africa and Asia to coordinate cooperation in the areas of investment, trade and technology.
Tan Sri Datuk Kamil Jaafar (b.1937) is a Malaysian diplomat who served as his country’s Ambassador to Thailand (1975), Vietnam (1978), Switzerland (1980), China (1983) and Japan (1986). He was Secretary General of the Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1989 to 1996.
Marlborough House is a 17
th century mansion in the City of Westminster, central London, which has served as the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat since 1953. Abdul Badawi (Abdullah Badawi)
Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (b.1939) is a Malaysian politician who succeeded Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to become the 5
th Prime Minister of Malaysia, serving this office between 2003 and 2009. Until 2006, he also acted as Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement, replacing Fidel Castro in this post in 2003. From 2009-11, Badawi served as Chair of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group. David Gillmore
David Gillmore, Baron Gillmore of Thamesfield (1934-1999), was a British diplomat who served as Permanent Undersecretary at the Foreign Office from 1991 up to his retirement in 1994. In 1983, he was appointed High Commissioner in Malaysia, having served previous posts in Moscow and Vienna.
OIC (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation)
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an international organisation based out of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which promises to act as the “collective voice of the Muslim World.” Founded in 1969 as the 'Organisation of the Islamic Conference', it includes 57 member states and has permanent delegations to the United Nations and European Union.
Moses Anafu is a Ghanian diplomat who joined the Commonwealth Secretariat in 1979 as Research Officer in the International Affairs Division. He was appointed Chief Research Officer in 1987 and served as Assistant Director, Political Affairs Department from 1990 to 2000. He was the Secretary General's Special Envoy to South Africa from 1991 to 1994. Anafu has also advised the UNDP on questions of governance in Africa.
The term ‘Washington Consensus’ is used to describe a set of economic policy prescriptions that became standard practice in the 1980s for several Washington-based institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in their dealings with developing countries. These prescriptions include policies of deregulation, the opening of national economies to foreign trade and investment, and the facilitation of market forces domestically, priorities which are seen to be representative of an emerging ‘neo-liberal’ tendency in the era.
The Langkawi Declaration was a declaration issued at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malaysia, 1981, which outlines several commitments to be taken by member countries on issues of environmental sustainability and climate change.
Click here to read the Declaration in full. Ben Muda
Dr Muhammad Ben Muda is a senior Malaysian diplomat who acted as Advisor to the Commonwealth Business Council from 2006 to 2012. He has also served as Chairman of the ASEAN-UK Business Forum and Founder-member of the Malaysia-Europe Forum (MEF), in addition to his diplomatic experience in South Korea, the Former USSR, and Namibia.
Datuk Noor Farida
Datuk Noor Farida Ariffin is a distinguished Malysian diplomat who served the Commonwealth Secretariat as Director of the Women and Development Programme (1988-1993). Farida has held numerous positions in the Administrative and Diplomatic Service in Malaysia and, in 2000, was appointed Ambassador to the Netherlands, a position she held until 2007.
ISIS (Institute of Strategic and International Studies)
The Institute of Strategic & International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia was established in 1983 as an autonomous, not-for-profit research organisation and has become one of Malaysia’s most influential think tanks, especially respected on issues of diplomacy and foreign affairs.
Maxwell Gaylard (b. 1946). Australian diplomat. He was Director of Political/International Affairs at the Commonwealth Secretariat in London in the 1990s.
Joe Clark (b. 1939). Canadian journalist, politician and statesman. As a member of the Progressive Conservative party, he was Prime Minister of Canada, June 1979-March 1980 and Secretary of State for External Affairs 1984-91.
United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
Sonny Ramphal (Shridath Ramphal)
Shridath Surendranath 'Sonny' Ramphal (b. 1928). Guyanese politician, second Commonwealth Secretary-General (1975-1990).
An international organisation of countries that are not aligned with any manjor world power, founded in 1961.
Nelson Mandela (b. 1918). South African anti-apartheid campaigner and politician, served as South Africa’s first post-apartheid President (1994-1999).
Dr Mahathir (Mahathir bin Mohamad)
Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (b. 1925). Malaysian politician and Prime Minister (1981-2003).
Lord Hurd of Westall (b.1930), British politician prominent during the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major. Minister of State, Foreign & Commonwealth Office (1979-1983), where he acted as Minister for Europe, that office's inaugural holder; Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1984-85); Home Secretary (1985-59); and Foreign Secretary (1989-95).
High Level Appraisal
The ten-strong High Level Appraisal Group was established at the 1989 CHOGM to look at the role of the Commonwealth going forward, and drafted what became known as the Harare Declaration.
The Harare Commonwealth Declaration of 1991 set out the Commonwealth's principles and values, including membership criteria.
Click here to read the Declaration in full. Malcolm Fraser
Malcolm Fraser (b. 1930). Prime Minister of Australia (1975-1983). Fraser also served as Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
CFTC (Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation)
The Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation (CFTC) is an organisation administered by the Commonwealth Secretariat that delivers technical assistance to Commonwealth member countries. A mutual and voluntary fund, it was established in 1971.
The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) is the name for a series of multi-party negotiations on the ending of apartheid in South Africa, hosted in 1991 and 1992. CODESA I took place in December 1991, nearly two years after the unbanning of political parties and the release of Nelson Mandela. CODESA II began in May 1992, though negotiations collapsed following the Boipatong massacre in June.
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Every two years Commonwealth heads of government meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, with the aim of promoting common initiatives.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi (b. 1928). South African politician, founded the Inkatha Freedom Party in 1975, and served as South African Minister of Home Affairs from 1994 to 2004.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Formed in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a political and economic organization of Southeast Asian countries.
Robert Armstrong (Lord Armstrong)
Sir Robert Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, (b. 1927) is a British life peer and former civil servant. He served as Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister from 1970 to 1975, and Secretary of the Cabinet under Margaret Thatcher from 1979 to 1987.
A system of legally enforced racial segregation implemented and upheld by the National Party in South Africa from 1948 – 1994
African National Congress. A South African political party, founded in 1912, that opposed apartheid and has been South Africa’s governing party since 1994.