Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Major, John. 1943-. Born in UK. Member of Parliament (Conservative Party), 1979-2001. Parliamentary Private Secretary, 1981. Under-Secretary of State for Social Security in 1985. Minister of State for Social Security, 1986....
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Downer, Alexander. 1951-. Born in Australia. Educated at Newcastle University (1975-1976). Australian Diplomatic Service, 1976-82. Political Adviser to Prime Minister JM Fraser, 1982-83. House of Representatives for Mayo,...
Patricia Janet Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, (b.1955) is a British barrister and jurist who served as Attorney General for England and Wales from 2007 to 2010. Baroness Scotland had previously served as Attorney General for Northern Ireland (2007-10). Born in Dominica, she was elected as the sixth Commonwealth Secretary General at the Malta CHOGM in November 2015. In April 2016 she took up her post as the first female Commonwealth Secretary General.
Treaty of Rome
The Treaty of Rome is an international agreement signed in 1957 that led to the founding of the European Economic Community (EEC) the following year. The Treaty’s original signatories were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, though the body has grown and the terms of cooperation adapted through subsequent treaties in Maastricht (1993) and Lisbon (2009), establishing the present-day European Union.
The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative is a debt reduction programme jointly coordinated by the IMF and the World Bank and launched in 1996. The initiative provides debt relief and low-interest loans to 39 countries around the world, 33 of which are located in sub-Saharan Africa.
Small Island Developing States
The Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are a group of developing countries recognised as a distinct group by the United Nations, initially at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Group activity among the SIDS has been defined by the 1994 Barbados Programme of Action, which focuses on sustainable development.
The Commonwealth Games is an international sporting event that takes place every four years and brings together athletes from across the Commonwealth of Nations. It began in 1930 as the British Empire Games, and is overseen today by the Commonwealth Games Federation.
Refers to incumbent, previous, and next Chairpersons-in-Office of the Commonwealth, who, after the 2002 CHOGM, met to try to resolve the dispute over Zimbabwe’s membership of the Commonwealth.
Pacific Island Forum (Pacific Islands Forum)
The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization. Founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum, it aims to enhance cooperation between the countries of the Pacific Ocean.
Boutros-Ghali (Boutros Boutros-Ghali)
Boutros Boutros-Ghali (b. 1922). Egyptian politician and diplomat. He was Secretary-General of the United Nations (1992-96) and Secretary General of La Francophonie (1997-2002).
The Lusaka CHOGM
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Zambia in 1979.
United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
A concept used to explain an emphasis on a attracting and co-opting power as opposed to coercive or forceful power.
Musharraf (Pervez Musharraf)
Pervez Musharraf – (1943-) Pakistani soldier and politician. He was the military ruler of Pakistan (1999-2001) and served as President (2001-2008).
Robert Mugabe (b.1924). Zimbabwean resistance leader and politician. Served as Prime Minister (1980-1987) and President (1987-) of Zimbabwe.
Sir Donald McKinnon (b. 1939) is a New Zealand politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister for the National Party (1990-96), Foreign Minister (1990-99) and Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations (2000-08).
John Howard (b.1939). Prime Minister of Australia (1996-2007).
Julia Gillard (b.1961) is an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia from 2010 to 2013.
Inaugurated in 1999, the Group of Twenty brings together finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
European Union. International organisation of European states. Known as the European Economic Community before 1993.
Alexander Downer (b. 1951). Australian politician, served as Foreign Minister from 1996 to 2007.
States that were under British sovereignty, but which became increasingly autonomous, especially from the 1930s, and are now independent nations. Former dominions include Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.
The 2002 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Colum, Queensland, Australia.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
A Commonwealth organisation that promotes good governance. Founded in 1911 as the Empire Parliamentary Association, and renamed in 1948.
Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group. Established by Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1995, the CMAG upholds the terms of the Harare Declaration.
CFTC (Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation)
The Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation (CFTC) is an organisation administered by the Commonwealth Secretariat that delivers technical assistance to Commonwealth member countries. A mutual and voluntary fund, it was established in 1971.
A period of ideological tension from around 1945 to 1991 between capitalist nations led by the USA and communist nations led by the USSR.
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Every two years Commonwealth heads of government meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, with the aim of promoting common initiatives.
A system of legally enforced racial segregation implemented and upheld by the National Party in South Africa from 1948 – 1994
Within the Commonwealth, Australia, Britain and Canada.