Download Interview Transcript: Part One (7 May 2014); Part Two (6 August 2014). Biography: Gaylard, Maxwell. 1946- . Born in Nambour, Queensland, Australia. Educated at the University of Queensland and the Australian National University. Served in the Australian...
Download Interview Transcripts: Part One (27th February 2013); Part Two (8th April 2014). Biography: McKinnon, Donald Charles. 1939- . Born in London, United Kingdom. Educated at Lincoln Agricultural College, New Zealand. Elected as Member of Parliament for Albany,...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: McAskie, Carolyn. Born in Glasgow, Scotland. Joined the Canadian civil service in 1968. Assistant Director of Finance and Personnel, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1975-80. Canadian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka and the Maldives,...
Download interview transcript (conducted over two days in London, 22-23 May 2013). Biography: Aliker, Dr Martin Jerome Okec. 1925- . Born in Gulu District, Uganda. Alumnus of Kings College Budo and Makerere University. Qualified as Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) from...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Pepera, Sandra. 1959- . Lecturer in Political Science and International Relations at the University of Ghana, 1983-1994. Analyst in the Political Affairs Division, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1995-2000. Joins the British civil...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Hensley, Gerald. 1935- . New Zealand Department of External Affairs, 1958-1965. New Zealand Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York. Special Assistant to the Commonwealth Secretary General, 1965-1969. Counsellor at...
Tilak Eranga Gooneratne (1919-2003) was a Sri Lankan diplomat who served as the first Deputy Secretary General for Economic Affairs and Development in the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1965 to 1970. Gooneratne was later Sri Lanka’s High Commissioner in London (1970-75) and then Ambassador to the European Economic Community (1975-78).
Norman Eric Kirk (1923-1974) was a New Zealand politician who served as Prime Minister from 1972 until his death in 1974. Kirk had been Leader of the Opposition Labour Party from 1965 to 1972 and had been Member of Parliament since 1957.
Gordon Goundrey (1923-2006) was a Canadian development economist and diplomat who spent twenty-two years as an adviser to the United Nations, retiring in 1982 as Assistant Secretary General in the Office for Special Political Questions. Goundrey worked frequently with the technical assistance arm of the Commonwealth Secretariat and, throughout his career, led approximately 120 missions to Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. He was appointed Professor of Economics at Newfoundland’s Memorial University in 1953.
Amishadai Larson Adu, or Yaw Adu, was a Ghanaian civil servant who served as Deputy Secretary General for Political Affairs in the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1966 to 1970. Adu was author of
The Civil Service in Commonwealth Africa (1969). Joy Tilsley
Joy Tilsley was a Canadian civil servant who acted as Arnold Smith’s personal secretary during the early years of the Commonwealth Secretariat. Tilsley, on secondment from the Canadian Foreign Service, was Smith’s first appointment to the new organisation. Tilsley was subsequently a central figure in the Canadian branch of the Royal Commonwealth Society (1993-2014).
G-77 (Group of 77)
The Group of 77 is a coalition of United Nations member states, primarily composed of developing nations, who collaborate in UN negotiations to promote their collective economic interests. The Group was founded on 15 June 1964 at the UN Conference on Trade and Development.
Harold Macmillan, 1
st Earl of Stockton (1894-1986), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. He was leader of the Conservative Party, having previously served cabinet positions under the tenure of Prime Ministers Sir Anthony Eden and Winston Churchill. Marlborough House
Marlborough House is a 17
th century mansion in the City of Westminster, central London, which has served as the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat since 1953. Helmut Schmidt
Helmut Schmidt, b.1918, is a German politician who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1974 to 1982.
‘Number 10’ refers to 10 Downing Street, the official residence of the British Prime Minister in London and the headquarters of the British Government.
New International Economic Order
The New International Economic Order (NIEO) was a proposal set forth by a group of developing countries in 1974 to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. It focused on issues of trade, development assistance, tariff reductions in developed countries and was intended to revise the dominant ‘Bretton-Woods’ economic order that was perceived to disproportionately benefit the United States.
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was formed in Britain in 1957 and advocates the global abolition of nuclear weapons and tighter international regulations around the arms trade. It is one of the foremost pacifist movements in Europe.
Gerald Hensley, b.1935. Former New Zealand diplomat who served as Special Assistant to the Commonwealth Secretary General when the Secretariat was established in 1965. He later served various positions under the Robert Muldoon and David Lange governments in New Zealand, including Secretary of Defense. In 2000, Hensley chaired the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group in its work in Papua New Guinea.
Sir Kamisese Mara (1920-2004). Fijian politician. He was Prime Minister of Fiji, 1970-92. Though defeated in the election of 1987, he headed an interim administration following a military coup, until 1992. He was then President of Fiji, 1993-2000.
Sir Alister Donald Miles McIntosh (1906-78). New Zealand diplomat and New Zealand’s first Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
James “Jim” Bolger (b. 1935). New Zealand politician and member of the National Party. He was Prime Minister 1990-97, and leader of the opposition, 1986-90.
George Thomson, Baron Thomson of Monifieth (1921-2008). British politician, and a member of the Labour Party, Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Democrats. He was Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, 1967-68.
Arthur George Bottomley, Baron Bottomley (1907-95). British Labour politician and later a life peer. He was Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (1964-66) and Minister of Overseas Development (1966-67).
Sir Saville Garner
Joseph John Saville Garner, Baron Garner (1908-83). British Diplomat. He was Deputy Under-Secretary of State, Commonwealth Relations Office and from 1956-61 was British High Commissioner to Canada.
Zimbabwe African People’s Union. A militant political organisation founded in 1961 that fought against white minority rule in Rhodesia. Merged with ZANU in 1987 to form ZANU-PF.
Zimbabwe African National Union. A militant political organisation founded in 1963 to campaign against white minority rule in Rhodesia. It won power in 1980, and in 1987 merged with ZAPU to form ZANU-PF.
Harold Wilson (1916-1995). British politician and Prime Minister (1964-1970, 1974-1976).
London street. Site of many government buildings, the term ‘Whitehall’ is often used to refer to the bureaucracy of the British government.
United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Rhodesia’s 1965 declaration of independence without British agreement, intended to preserve white minority rule.
Pierre Trudeau (1919-2000). Canadian politician and Prime Minister (1968-1979, 1980-1984).
South Pacific Forum
The South Pacific Forum was an international organisation formed in 1971 to facilitate cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean. In 1999, it was renamed the Pacific Islands Forum.
Arnold Smith (1915 –1994). Canadian diplomat, the first Commonwealth Secretary-General (1965–1975).
A body, part of the United Nations organisation, charged with upholding of global peace and security.
Patsy Robertson. Jamaican journalist and diplomat. Successively Commonwealth Press Officer, Director of Information, and official Commonwealth spokesperson (1983-1994).
Sonny Ramphal (Shridath Ramphal)
Shridath Surendranath 'Sonny' Ramphal (b. 1928). Guyanese politician, second Commonwealth Secretary-General (1975-1990).
Lester Bowles 'Mike' Pearson (1897-1972) was a Canadian diplomat and politician, serving as Secretary of State for External Affairs (1948-1957) and Prime Minister (1963-1968). In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for organising a UN Emergency Force to respond to the Suez Canal Crisis, an initiative now considered the beginning of modern peacekeeping.
An informal term describing the countries of the pre-1945 Commonwealth: Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Milton Obote (1925-2005). Ugandan politician, Prime Minister (1962-1966) and President (1966-1971, 1980-1985).
Julius Nyerere (1922-1999). Tanzanian politician and President (1961-1985).
An international organisation of countries that are not aligned with any manjor world power, founded in 1961.
A national foreign policy position of avowed neutrality towards major powers.
Joshua Nkomo (1917-1999). Zimbabwean nationalist and leader of ZAPU.
Nkomo (Joshua Nkomo)
Joshua Nkomo (1917-1999). Zimbabwean nationalist and leader of ZAPU.
Nobel Peace Prize
An international award, presented since 1901, that recognises work promoting peace.
Sam Nujoma (b. 1929). Namibian politician and resistance leader. He was leader of SWAPO (1960-2007) and President of Namibia (1990-2005).
Nigerian Civil War
Civil war fought from 1967 to 1970 caused by the attempted secession of the Eastern Region, which declared itself the Republic of Biafra.
Sir Robert Muldoon (1921-1992). New Zealand politician and member of the National party. He was Prime Minister, 1975-84.
Robert Mugabe (b.1924). Zimbabwean resistance leader and politician. Served as Prime Minister (1980-1987) and President (1987-) of Zimbabwe.
Robert Menzies (Bob Menzies)
Sir Robert Menzies (1894-1978). Australian politician, served as Prime Minister from 1939 to 1941, and from 1949 to 1966.
Tom Mboya (1930-1969). Kenyan politician. After independence, he was appointed Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, then Minister for Economic Planning and Development, until his assassination in 1969.
Peter Marshall (b. 1946). British diplomat, Deputy Secretary General (Economic & Social) Commonwealth Secretariat from 1983 to 1989.
Michael Manley (1924-1997). Jamaican politician, twice served as Prime Minister (1972-1980, 1989-1992). A member of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa.
David Lange (1942-2005). New Zealand politician and member of the Labour Party. He was Prime Minister of New Zealand, 1984-89.
A London mansion house, frequently used as the venue for decolonisation negotiations between the 1940s and 1970s. It was the site of the
Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979, for instance, which brought an end to white rule in Rhodesia. Jomo Kenyatta
Jomo Kenyatta (1893-1978). Kenyan politician, Prime Minister (1963-1964) and President (1964-1978).
Kenneth Kaunda (b.1924). Zambian politician and President (1964-1991).
International Monetary Fund. Created in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference, the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF's original aim was to stabilise exchange rates and aid national reconstruction after the end of the Second World War.
A Royal Navy warship, venue for inconclusive 1966 talks between Harold Wilson and Ian Smith.
A Royal Navy warship, venue for inconclusive 1968 talks between Harold Wilson and Ian Smith.
Bob Hawke (b. 1929). Australian Prime Minister (1983-1991).
Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931). Final leader of the Soviet Union (1985-1991).
The Gleneagles Agreement was approved by Commonwealth leaders in Gleneagles, Scotland in 1977, supporting an international campaign against apartheid.
Click here to read the Agreement in full. Gibraltar referendum
A referendum over the future of Gibraltar held in 1967. Over 99% of votes favoured British sovereignty.
Malcolm Fraser (b. 1930). Prime Minister of Australia (1975-1983). Fraser also served as Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa.
Eminent Persons Group. A group of well-known individuals chosen by the Commonwealth to research a specific issue. The 1985 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed an EPG to report on apartheid in South Africa, published in 1986 as
Mission to South Africa. A second EPG was appointed in 2009 and tasked to produce a report on Commonwealth reform for 2011. John Compton
Sir John Compton (1925–2007). Saint Lucian politician and Prime Minister (1979, 1982-1996, 2006-2007).
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
A period of ideological tension from around 1945 to 1991 between capitalist nations led by the USA and communist nations led by the USSR.
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Every two years Commonwealth heads of government meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, with the aim of promoting common initiatives.
Eugenia Charles (1919-2005). Dominican politician and Prime Minister (1980-1995).
Prince Charles (b. 1948). Heir to the throne of the UK and the other territories for which the British monarch is also Head of State.
Central African Federation
The political union between Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Intended to become independent as a single state, the Federation broke up due difference over the political power of the white minority.
The term used to describe the Commonwealth until 1949, reflecting British pre-eminence within it.
Tony Blair (b. 1953). British politician, served as Prime Minister from 1997 to 2007.
British Broadcasting Corporation. Broadcasting organisation semi-autonomous from the British government, originally founded in 1922.
Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1898-1997). Malawian politician, served as Prime Minister (1964-1966) and President (1966-1994).
Robert Armstrong (Lord Armstrong)
Sir Robert Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, (b. 1927) is a British life peer and former civil servant. He served as Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister from 1970 to 1975, and Secretary of the Cabinet under Margaret Thatcher from 1979 to 1987.
A system of legally enforced racial segregation implemented and upheld by the National Party in South Africa from 1948 – 1994
Emeka Anyaoku (b. 1933). Nigerian diplomat. Served as Head of the Commonwealth International Affairs Division (1973-1977), Assistant Secretary General (1977-1979); Deputy Secretary General (1979-1991); Secretary General (1991-2001).
Tom Adams (1931-1985). Barbadian politician and Prime Minister (1976 -1985).
Within the Commonwealth, Australia, Britain and Canada.
Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)
The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British activist organisation founded in 1959 to oppose white minority rule in South Africa. It continued to run until 1994, supporting economic and academic sanctions of South Africa and cooperating with other international organisations like the UN.
Margaret Thatcher (1926-2013). British politician and Prime Minister (1979-1990).
Mrs Thatcher (Margaret Thatcher)
Margaret Thatcher (1926-2013). British politician and Prime Minister (1979-1990).