Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Hensley, Gerald. 1935- . New Zealand Department of External Affairs, 1958-1965. New Zealand Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York. Special Assistant to the Commonwealth Secretary General, 1965-1969. Counsellor at...
Download interview Transcript. Biography: Slinn, Peter. Oxford (MA), London (PhD); Legal Advisor, UK Commonwealth Relations Office/Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1967-1977; Professor of international, constitutional and natural resources law at the School of...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Brewer, Karen (Dr). 1962-. Law Society of England and Wales, 1987-1998. Commonwealth Magistrates’ and Judges’ Association, Secretary-General, 1998-present. Key: SO: Sue Onslow (Interviewer) KB: Karen Brewer...
Download Interview Transcript: Part One (1 February 2013); Part Two (Forthcoming) Biography: Mole, Stuart Gordon. Lecturer, Chelmsford College, 1971–75. Parliamentary Press Officer, Liberal Party, 1975–77. Director, OUTSET Youth and Disability Charity, 1977–80. Head,...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Kirkman, William, MBE. Journalist: Wolverhampton Express & Star; Africa Correspondent and Commonwealth Staff Correspondent, The Times; BBC World Service, 1960s; BBC Africa Service, 1960s; BBC Radio Cambridgeshire, 1990s;...
Harold Macmillan, 1
st Earl of Stockton (1894-1986), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. He was leader of the Conservative Party, having previously served cabinet positions under the tenure of Prime Ministers Sir Anthony Eden and Winston Churchill. Marlborough House
Marlborough House is a 17
th century mansion in the City of Westminster, central London, which has served as the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat since 1953. ZAPU
Zimbabwe African People’s Union. A militant political organisation founded in 1961 that fought against white minority rule in Rhodesia. Merged with ZANU in 1987 to form ZANU-PF.
Zimbabwe African National Union. A militant political organisation founded in 1963 to campaign against white minority rule in Rhodesia. It won power in 1980, and in 1987 merged with ZAPU to form ZANU-PF.
Eric Williams (1911-1991). Trinidadian historian and politician, Chief Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1956-1959), Premier (1959-1962), and Prime Minister (1962-1981).
An ancient church in London. The traditional venue for British coronations.
West Indies Federation
The brief (1958-1962) political union between British colonies in the Caribbean, that was intended to become independent from Britain as a single state.
Verwoerd (Hendrik Verwoerd)
Dr Hendrik Verwoerd (1901 –1966). Prime Minister of South Africa (1958-1966), closely associated with apartheid policies.
United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Rhodesia’s 1965 declaration of independence without British agreement, intended to preserve white minority rule.
The Soviet Union and its allies during the period of the Cold War (1945-1991). The Soviet Bloc comprised countries with a communist system of government, and was opposed to the United States and its allies.
A concept used to explain an emphasis on a attracting and co-opting power as opposed to coercive or forceful power.
Arnold Smith (1915 –1994). Canadian diplomat, the first Commonwealth Secretary-General (1965–1975).
a Bantu language spoken by the Shona peoples of Zimbabwe and Zambia.
Duncan Sandys (1908-1987). British politician, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (1960-1962) and Secretary of State for the Colonies (1962-1964).
Sonny Ramphal (Shridath Ramphal)
Shridath Surendranath 'Sonny' Ramphal (b. 1928). Guyanese politician, second Commonwealth Secretary-General (1975-1990).
Elizabeth II (b. 1926). Head of State of the United Kingdom and 15 other countries, and Head of the Commonwealth (from 1952).
Organisation of African Unity
An international organisation for African states founded in 1963.
Oginga Odinga (1911-1994). Kenyan politician and Vice-President (1964-1966).
Milton Obote (1925-2005). Ugandan politician, Prime Minister (1962-1966) and President (1966-1971, 1980-1985).
Julius Nyerere (1922-1999). Tanzanian politician and President (1961-1985).
Non-governmental civil society organisations
Organisations characterised by their foundation and operation independent of states. They and often pursue charitable and social objectives.
Joshua Nkomo (1917-1999). Zimbabwean nationalist and leader of ZAPU.
Nkomo (Joshua Nkomo)
Joshua Nkomo (1917-1999). Zimbabwean nationalist and leader of ZAPU.
A Bantu language spoken by the Matabele people of Zimbabwe.
Joe Murumbi (1911-1990). Kenyan politician and Vice-President (1965-1966).
Robert Mugabe (b.1924). Zimbabwean resistance leader and politician. Served as Prime Minister (1980-1987) and President (1987-) of Zimbabwe.
Tom Mboya (1930-1969). Kenyan politician. After independence, he was appointed Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, then Minister for Economic Planning and Development, until his assassination in 1969.
Norman Manley (1893-1969). Jamaican politician, Chief Minister (1955-1959) and Premier (1959-1962).
Iain Macleod (1913-1970). British politician, served as Secretary of State for the Colonies (1959-61).
An ethnic group of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
A Bantu people, the largest ethnic group in Kenya.
Jomo Kenyatta (1893-1978). Kenyan politician, Prime Minister (1963-1964) and President (1964-1978).
Kenneth Kaunda (b.1924). Zambian politician and President (1964-1991).
Kenya African National Union. A Kenyan political party founded in 1960, that took power on Kenyan independence in 1963.
Edward Heath (1916 –2005). British politician and Prime Minister (1970-1974).
Front Line States
A group of southern African states formed in 1970, which campaigned for democratic majority rule in South Africa.
Federation of Malaysia and Singapore
A federal state that briefly united Malaysia and Singapore form 1963 to 1965.
European Union. International organisation of European states. Known as the European Economic Community before 1993.
European Economic Community. An international organisation of European states, founded in 1957. Renamed the European Union in 1993.
Decision of South Africa to leave the Commonwealth
South Africa left the Commonwealth in 1961 after being condemned for its apartheid policies and facing expulsion.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cold War crisis of 1962 sparked by the Soviet Union basing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
Commonwealth Relations Office. The British government department responsible for relations with the Commonwealth from 1947 to 1966.
Commonwealth of Nations
The official name of the Commonwealth since 1949, before which it was known as the British Commonwealth of Nations.
The British government department responsible for colonial territories. Merged with the Commonwealth Relations Office to become the Commonwealth Office in 1966.
A period of ideological tension from around 1945 to 1991 between capitalist nations led by the USA and communist nations led by the USSR.
Central African Federation
The political union between Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Intended to become independent as a single state, the Federation broke up due difference over the political power of the white minority.
A kingdom within Uganda.
The term used to describe the Commonwealth until 1949, reflecting British pre-eminence within it.
BBC World Service
The branch of the British Broadcasting Corporation dedicated to broadcasting overseas. Founded in 1932 as the Empire Service.
British Broadcasting Corporation. Broadcasting organisation semi-autonomous from the British government, originally founded in 1922.
The people of Bunyoro, a kingdom that forms part of Uganda.
Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1898-1997). Malawian politician, served as Prime Minister (1964-1966) and President (1966-1994).
An ethnic group indigenous to the Buganda kingdom in Uganda.
A system of legally enforced racial segregation implemented and upheld by the National Party in South Africa from 1948 – 1994
Grantley Adams (1898-1971). A Barbadian politician, served as Prime Minister of Barbados (1953-1958) and Prime Minister of the West Indian Federation (1958-1962).
Margaret Thatcher (1926-2013). British politician and Prime Minister (1979-1990).
A Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference, dominated by debate over South Africa’s membership of the Commonwealth because of its apartheid policies.