Download Interview Transcripts: Part One (9 March 2016) and Part Two (29 March 2016) Biography: Sharma, Kamalesh. 1941-. Born in India. Educated at St Stephen’s College, Delhi and University of Cambridge. Indian Foreign Service, 1965-2001. India’s Permanent...
Dr Eva Namusoke, Postdoctoral Research Officer On 13 October 2016 the Maldives became the third country to leave the Commonwealth. The decision came after a number of years defined by a frosty relationship with the Commonwealth, centring on allegations of undemocratic...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Banerji, Amitav. 1953-. Born in India. Educated at Georgetown University (BA) and Delhi School of Economics (MA). Joined Indian Foreign Service in 1975. Private Secretary to the Indian Foreign Minister, 1979-1982. Joined...
Download Interview Transcripts: Part One (27th February 2013); Part Two (8th April 2014). Biography: McKinnon, Donald Charles. 1939- . Born in London, United Kingdom. Educated at Lincoln Agricultural College, New Zealand. Elected as Member of Parliament for Albany,...
Download Interview Transcript. Biography: Craft, Nickless Hugh. Born in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia. Graduated from the University of Cambridge, 1971 (BA) and 1974 (MA). Australian Department of Foreign Affairs (DFAT), 1971-1979, with diplomatic postings...
Download Interview Transcript: Part One (5 June 2013); Part Two (8 August 2013); Part Three (11 March 2014). Biography: Neuhaus, Matthew. Australian Diplomat. Postings to Papua New Guinea; Canberra; Counsellor to the Australian Mission in the United Nations, New York;...
Mohamed Nasheed (b.1967) is a Maldivian politician and human rights activist who served as his country’s President from 2008 to 2012. Nasheed, one of the founders of the Maldivian Democratic Party, resigned from the Presidency in 2012 following threats from opposition forces in the police and military.
Adebowale Ibidapo ‘Ade’ Adefuye (b.1947) is a Nigerian historian and diplomat who was appointed his country’s Ambassador to the United States in 2010. Adefuye was previously Professor of History at the University of Lagos and subsequently acted as Nigeria’s High Commissioner to Jamaica (1987-91) and Deputy High Commissioner to the United Kingdom (1991-94). He was Deputy Director of Strategic Planning for the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1994 to 2008.
Winston Cox is a Barbadian economist who served as Deputy Secretary General for Economic Affairs and Development at the Commonwealth Secretariat from 2000 to 2006. Following his time at the Secretariat, Cox joined the Inter-American Development Bank as Executive Director. He had previously served as Governor of the Central Bank of Barbados (1997-99).
Ransford Smith (b.1949) is a Jamaican public servant who acted as Deputy Secretary General for Economic Affairs and Development in the Commonwealth Secretariat from 2006 to 2013. Smith was previously Jamaica’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, Rome and Vienna. He was Chairman of the WTO Committee on Trade and Development (2000-01) and President of the Trade and Development Board of the UNCTAD (2005-06).
Mark Malloch Brown
Mark Malloch Brown, Baron Malloch-Brown, (b.1953) is a British political figure and development specialist who served as Minister of State in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office from 2007 to 2009. He was Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in 2006 and administered the United Nations Development Programme from 1999 to 2005.
Organisation of American States
The Organisation of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 as an inter-continental body promoting regional cooperation and collaboration. Headquartered in Washington, DC, the OAS includes 35 member states. In 2015, the Uruguayan lawyer and politician Luis Almagro was appointed Secretary General.
Dr Victor Pungong (1967- 2007) was a Cameroonian diplomat who served as Deputy Director of Political Affairs in the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Matthew Neuhaus is a career officer with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Australia, and was appointed Australian Ambassador to Zimbabwe in 2011. From 2002 to 2008 he served as Director of the Political Affairs Division, Commonwealth Secretariat, and was Assistant Secretary and Head of the CHOGM Policy Task Force in Australia.
Amitav Banerji is a career diplomat from India who became Director of the Political Affairs Division (PAD), Commonwealth Secretariat, in 2009. Previous to this post he had served as Chief of Staff to the Secretary-General, 2000-09, as well as Special Adviser in PAD from 1990 to 2000.
The Organisation international de la Francophonie (OIF), also known as La Francophonie, is an international organisation linking countries and regions that share French as first or customary language or where there is some affiliation with French culture. La Francophonie includes 57 member states, as well as three associate members and twenty observers.
Political Affairs Division
The Political Affairs Division (PAD) is the section of the Commonwealth Secretariat that coordinates activities between the Commonwealth, its member country governments and partner international organisations. It focuses its work on the prevention or resolution of political conflict at the invitation of a member country, and also supports the development of democratic processes and institutions.
The Senate House, University of London, is home to the University’s Central Academic Bodies, the Vice-Chancellor’s Offices, and the various research institutes of the School of Advanced Study. The Institute of Commonwealth Studies has been based in Senate House since 2009.
Tun Musa bin Hitam (b.1934) was Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1981 to 1986, serving under Mahathir bin Mohamad. From 1990-91 he was Malaysia’s Special Envoy to the United Nations and, in 1995, was appointed as Prime Minister’s Special Envoy to the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG).
Marlborough House is a 17
th century mansion in the City of Westminster, central London, which has served as the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat since 1953. Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd, b.1957, was twice Prime Minister of Australia (2007-10, 2013), leading a Labor Party government. He has also acted as Minister for Foreign Affairs (2010-12) under the leadership of Prime Minister Julia Gillard.
Refers to incumbent, previous, and next Chairpersons-in-Office of the Commonwealth, who, after the 2002 CHOGM, met to try to resolve the dispute over Zimbabwe’s membership of the Commonwealth.
Pacific Islands Forum
The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization. Founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum, it aims to enhance cooperation between the countries of the Pacific Ocean.
La Francophonie is an international organisation created in 1970 that represents countries whose first language is French, or that have a significant proportion of French speakers, or where there is a notable affiliation to French culture.
Kofi Atta Annan (b. 1938). Ghanaian diplomat. He was Secretary-General of the United Nations 1997-2006.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 and is a forum seeking to promote free trade and economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.
Millennium Development Goals
The Millennium Development Goals are a series of eight development goals adopted in 2000 following the United Nations Millennium Summit.
Jagdeo (Bharrat Jagdeo)
Bharrat Jagdeo (b. 1964). Guyanese politician and member of the PPP. He was President of Guyana, 1999-2011. In December 2011 his term of office came to an end, and he was succeeded by Donald Ramotar.
Clare Short (b. 1946). British politician and member of the Labour Party. She was Secretary of State for International Development, 1997-2003.
Tamil Tigers (LTTE)
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was a separatist militant organisation based in northern Sri Lanka. It operated from 1976 to 2009.
Joe Clark (b. 1939). Canadian journalist, politician and statesman. As a member of the Progressive Conservative party, he was Prime Minister of Canada, June 1979-March 1980 and Secretary of State for External Affairs 1984-91.
Mohan Kaul was a director and senior member of the Commonwealth Secretariat, and, since its formation in 1997, has been Director-General of the Commonwealth Business Council.
Organisation of African Unity. Founded in 1963 to act as a collective voice for African Nations, it was replaced by the African Union in 2002.
Sir Paul Reeves (1932-2011). Archbishop and Primate of New Zealand (1980-85) and Governor-General of New Zealand (1985-90).
Zimbabwe African National Union. A militant political organisation founded in 1963 to campaign against white minority rule in Rhodesia. It won power in 1980, and in 1987 merged with ZAPU to form ZANU-PF.
The Lusaka CHOGM
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Zambia in 1979.
Verwoerd (Hendrik Verwoerd)
Dr Hendrik Verwoerd (1901 –1966). Prime Minister of South Africa (1958-1966), closely associated with apartheid policies.
United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
Morgan Tsvangirai (b.1952). Zimbabwean politician noted for his opposition to Robert Mugabe. Prime Minister of Zimbabwe (2009-2013).
Arnold Smith (1915 –1994). Canadian diplomat, the first Commonwealth Secretary-General (1965–1975).
Kamalesh Sharma (b. 1941). Indian diplomat, Commonwealth Secretary-General from 2008-2016.
A body, part of the United Nations organisation, charged with upholding of global peace and security.
Southern African Development Community (SADC). An international organisation founded in 1992, and a successor to the Southern African Development Coordination Conference, founded in 1980. Goal to encourage socio-economic cooperation and integration among southern African states.
Sonny Ramphal (Shridath Ramphal)
Shridath Surendranath 'Sonny' Ramphal (b. 1928). Guyanese politician, second Commonwealth Secretary-General (1975-1990).
General Obasanjo (Olusegun Obasanjo)
Olusegun Obasanjo (b. 1937). Nigerian Head of Federal Military Government (1976-1979) and President (1999-2007). He was Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa (1985-1986).
An international organisation of countries that are not aligned with any manjor world power, founded in 1961.
Movement for Democratic Change. The leading Zimbabwean opposition party, founded in 1999.
Sir Donald McKinnon (b. 1939) is a New Zealand politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister for the National Party (1990-96), Foreign Minister (1990-99) and Secretary General of the Commonwealth of Nations (2000-08).
Latimer House Principles
Commonwealth principles on the relationship between the three branches of government that seek to promote good governance. Drafted in 1998 and endorsed by Commonwealth Heads of Government in 2003.
A London mansion house, frequently used as the venue for decolonisation negotiations between the 1940s and 1970s. It was the site of the
Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979, for instance, which brought an end to white rule in Rhodesia. Michael Kirby
Michael Kirby (b.1939) is an Australian jurist who served as a Justice on the High Court of Australia between 1996 and 2009. He was President of the International Commission of Jurists (1995-98) and from 2009 to 2011 was a member of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group.
King Charles Street
King Charles Street is a central London thoroughfare, home of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Paul Keating (b. 1944). Prime Minister of Australia (1991-1996).
John Howard (b.1939). Prime Minister of Australia (1996-2007).
Bob Hawke (b. 1929). Australian Prime Minister (1983-1991).
Julia Gillard (b.1961) is an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia from 2010 to 2013.
Inaugurated in 1999, the Group of Twenty brings together finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
Malcolm Fraser (b. 1930). Prime Minister of Australia (1975-1983). Fraser also served as Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa.
Foreign and Commonwealth Office. British government department with responsibility for relations with other countries. Created in 1968 from the merger of the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office. Often called 'the Foreign Office'.
Gareth Evans (b. 1944). Australian politician, Foreign Minister from 1988 to 1966.
European Union. International organisation of European states. Known as the European Economic Community before 1993.
London thoroughfare. Number ten is the official residence of the British Prime Minister.
Alexander Downer (b. 1951). Australian politician, served as Foreign Minister from 1996 to 2007.
The 2002 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Colum, Queensland, Australia.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
A Commonwealth organisation that promotes good governance. Founded in 1911 as the Empire Parliamentary Association, and renamed in 1948.
Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group. Established by Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1995, the CMAG upholds the terms of the Harare Declaration.
A Commonwealth educational organisation that was operative between 1962 and 2000. It was originally founded in 1887 as the Imperial Institute.
A period of ideological tension from around 1945 to 1991 between capitalist nations led by the USA and communist nations led by the USSR.
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Every two years Commonwealth heads of government meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, with the aim of promoting common initiatives.
James Earl 'Jimmy' Carter, Jr (b. 1924) is an American Democratic politician who served as 39th President of the United States (1977-1981).
Caribbean Community. In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the Seventh Heads of Government Conference agreed to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the Common Market would be an integral part. The treaty establishing the Caribbean Community was signed at Chaguaramas on 4 July 1973.
Tony Blair (b. 1953). British politician, served as Prime Minister from 1997 to 2007.
Benazir Bhutto (1953-2007). Pakistani Prime Minister from 1988 to 1990 and from 1993 to 1996.
The breaching of the Berlin Wall that divided East and West Berlin in November 1989 was a major milestone in the ending of the Cold War.
Emeka Anyaoku (b. 1933). Nigerian diplomat. Served as Head of the Commonwealth International Affairs Division (1973-1977), Assistant Secretary General (1977-1979); Deputy Secretary General (1979-1991); Secretary General (1991-2001).
The successor organisation to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) from 2002. It aims to promote greater cooperation and unity between member states.
Abacha (Sani Abacha)
General Sani Abacha (1943-1998). Nigerian army general and politician. He was the
de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher (1926-2013). British politician and Prime Minister (1979-1990).