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AAM -  The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British activist organisation founded in 1959 to oppose white minority rule in South Africa. It continued to run until 1994, supporting economic and academic sanctions of South Africa and cooperating with other international organisations like the UN.
- Synonyms: Anti-Apartheid Movement
ABC countries -  Within the Commonwealth, Australia, Britain and Canada.
Abdou Diouf -  Abdou Diouf, b.1935, was the President of Senegal from 1981 to 2000. A protégé of Léopold Sédar Senghor, he served under Senghor as Prime Minister between 1970 and 1980. From 2003 to 2014 Diouf was Secretary-General of La Francophonie.
- Synonyms: Diouf
Abdul Minty -  Abdul Minty (b. 1939). South African diplomat.
Abdul Razak Hussein -  Tun Abdul Razak Hussein (1922-1976) was the Second Prime Minister of Malaysia (1970-76) and was responsible for setting up Barisan Nasional, the ruling coalition of political parties that has held power in Malaysia into the twenty-first century.
- Synonyms: Razak
Abdullah Badawi -  Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (b.1939) is a Malaysian politician who succeeded Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to become the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia, serving this office between 2003 and 2009. Until 2006, he also acted as Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement, replacing Fidel Castro in this post in 2003. From 2009-11, Badawi served as Chair of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group.
- Synonyms: Abdul Badawi
Abdulsalami Abubakar -  General Abdulsalami Alhaji Abubakar (b.1942) is a Nigerian military and political figure who succeeded General Sani Abacha as President of Nigeria, serving from 1998 to 1999. Under Abubakar, Nigeria adopted a new constitution and facilitated multi-party elections, transferring power to the democratically-elected Olusegun Obasanjo in May 1999.
Abe Bailey Scholar -  The Abe Bailey Scholarship was established following the death of Sir Abraham ‘Abe’ Bailey, a South African diamond tycoon and politician. The Scholarship comes in the form of a travel bursary and is awarded to university students and young academics (under the age of 25) in South Africa to allow them experience of the United Kingdom.
Abeid Karume -  Abeid Amani Karume (1905-1972) was a Zanzibari political figure who served as the first President of Zanzibar from 1964 to 1972. During this period Karume was also Vice President of Tanzania, under President Julius Nyerere.
Aberdeen Principles -  Commonwealth principles on good practice for local democracy and good governance, agreed in 2005.
- Synonyms: Aberdeen Agenda, Aberdeen
Abidjan Peace Accord -  The Abidjan Peace Accord was signed in 1996 by the Sierra Leone People’s Party government of Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and the Revolutionary United Front rebel group led by Foday Sankoh. The treaty was designed to end the Sierra Leone Civil War - which had begun in 1991 - but ultimately the Accord failed and a military coup was staged by Johnny Paul Karoma of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council in 1997.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission -  An Australian government organisation intended to represent the interests of Aborigines and Torres Strait islanders. Established in 1990 and abolished in 2005.
Abraham Ordia -  Abraham Ordia (d.1995) was a Nigerian sports administrator and official who helped found the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA), acting as its president from 1969 to 1983. Ordia was also Secretary General of the Nigeria Olympic Committee for twenty years and, in 1976, was appointed Vice-President of the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education.
Abu Hassan Omar -  Tan Sri Dato’ Abu Hassan Omar (b.1940) is a Malaysian political figure who served as his country’s Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1987 to 1991. He was Chief Minister of Selangor, Malaysia, from 1997 to 2000.
Abu Sayeed Chowdhury -  Abu Sayeed Chowdhury (1921-1987) was a Bengali jurist and politician who served as second President of Bangladesh from 1972 to 1973. He had previously served as Vice-Chancellor of Dhaka University and was later a member of the UN Sub-Committee on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, as well as Chairman of the UN Human Rights Commission.
Acheampong -  Ignatius Acheampong (1931-1979). Ghanaian soldier and military Head of State (1972-1978).
ACP Group -  The African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group) was created in 1975 by the Georgetown Agreement and, as an organisation, devotes its attention to sustainable development, poverty reduction and integration with the world economy. It includes 48 countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, 16 from the Caribbean and 15 from the Pacific.
ActionAid -  ActionAid is an international non-profit, non-governmental organisation which focuses on the elimination of poverty and the elevation of poor and marginalised communities around the world. It was established in 1972 and is currently headquartered in Johannesburg, South Africa. ActionAid’s mission areas include: women’s rights, education, food rights, democratic governance, emergencies and conflict, climate change and youth.
ACU -  Association of Commonwealth Universities. An organisation that links universities in Commonwealth counties. Originally founded in 1913, the current name was adopted in 1963.
Ade Adefuye -  Adebowale Ibidapo ‘Ade’ Adefuye (b.1947) is a Nigerian historian and diplomat who was appointed his country’s Ambassador to the United States in 2010. Adefuye was previously Professor of History at the University of Lagos and subsequently acted as Nigeria’s High Commissioner to Jamaica (1987-91) and Deputy High Commissioner to the United Kingdom (1991-94). He was Deputy Director of Strategic Planning for the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1994 to 2008.
Adi Koila Nailatikau -  Adi Koila Nailatikau (b.1953) is a Fijian political figure, diplomat and lawyer. She was elected to the Fijian House of Representatives in 1999 and became Minister of Tourism, serving until the George Speight-led coup in 2000. Adi Koila is the daughter of former Fijian Prime Minister Ratu Mara and the wife of President of Fiji Ratu Epeli Nailatikau.
Adi Litia Cakobau -  Adi Litia Qalirea Cakobau is a Fijian political figure who served in her country’s Senate from 2001 to 2006, and previously in Cabinet as Minister for Women (1987). Cakobau is the daughter of Ratu Sir George Cakobau, Fiji’s Governor General from 1973 to 1983.
Adnan Khashoggi -  Adnan Khashoggi (b.1935) is a Saudi Arabian businessman and international arms dealer who, in the 1980s, was considered one of the richest men in the world. Khashoggi famously brokered deals between American arms firms and the Saudi government. He was also implicated in the Iran-Contra affair.
- Synonyms: Khashoggi
Adwoa Coleman -  Adwoa Coleman has acted as a senior official in the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and was the OAU’s signatory to the 1999 Lomé Accord for Sierra Leone. She was the OAU’s representative on the ground in both Abidjan and Freetown, and also served in the organisation’s Political Office as Chief of Research and Early Warning.
African Development Bank -  The African Development Bank (AfDB) was founded in 1963 as a multilateral finance institution working to support the economic development and social progress of countries in Africa. It is headquartered in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, and includes some 78 member states.
- Synonyms: AfDB
African National Congress -  African National Congress. A South African political party, founded in 1912, that opposed apartheid and has been South Africa’s governing party since 1994.
African Union -  The successor organisation to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) from 2002. It aims to promote greater cooperation and unity between member states.
Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique -  LAgence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique (ACCT) was the precursor organisation to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Founded in 1970, the ACCT encompassed 21 states and governments bound by French linguistic and cultural ties. In 2005, la Charte de la Francophonie created La Francophonie out of ACCT, with some 57 states included as members.
- Synonyms: ACCT
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah -  Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (1932-2014) was a Sierra Leonean politician and President of the country from 1996-97 and 1998-2007. Kabbah spent most of his career as an international civil service, particularly with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). His retirement from the UNDP in 1992 coincided with his entry into politics in Sierra Leone, participating in efforts to restore constitutional rule following the military coup of 1992.
Ahmed Ben Bella -  Ahmed Ben Bella (1918-2012) was an Algerian political figure who served as the first President of an independent Algeria from 1963 to 1965. Ben Bella was a founding member of the Organisation Spéciale, an underground revolutionary organisation working to fight French colonial rule in Algeria. In 1954 he helped establish the Front de Libération Nationale, the leading anti-colonial organisation in Algeria and a dominant party in post-colonial political life.
Ahmed Sékou Touré -  Ahmed Sékou Touré (1922-1984) was a Guinean politician who served as the first President of Guinea from 1958 to 1984. A leading nationalist figure in the anti-colonial struggle against France, Sékou Touré would declare his Parti démocratique de Guinée (PDG) the only legal party in Guinea in 1960.
Ainsley Gotto -  Ainsley Gotto (b.1946) is an Australian public figure who was appointed Private Secretary for Prime Minister John Gorton in 1968. Gotto attracted controversy for the influence she reputedly wielded over the Prime Minister. She has subsequently worked in the private sector and served as National President for the Australian chapter of Women Chiefs of Enterprises International.
Airey Neave -  Airey Middleton Sheffield Neave (1916-1979) was a British political figure and former army officer who served as Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (1974-79) under Edward Heath and then Margaret Thatcher. Neave was assassinated in 1979 by an Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) car bomb planted at the House of Commons in London.
Akbar Khan -  Akbar Khan is a British diplomat and lawyer who served as the Principal Legal Counsel to the Commonwealth Secretary-General from 2009 to 2012, leading the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Legal Division. In 2012 he was appointed a Member of the World Economic Forum Global Council on the Rule of Law.
Akinjide Osuntokun -  Dr Akinjide Osuntokun (b.1942) is a Nigerian academic and diplomat who served as his country’s Ambassador to Germany from 1991 to 1995. He was previously Special Adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Director of the Nigeria Universities Office in the US and Canada. Dr Osuntokun has taught History and International Relations at Universities in Barbados, Jos and Maduguri, as well as the University of Lagos, where he is Professor Emeritus.
Alan Brooks -  Alan Brooks (1940-2008). British anti-apartheid campaigner.
Alan Coren -  Alan Coren (1938-2007) was an English writer and satirist who served as editor of Punch magazine from 1978 to 1987. He wrote humour columns for The Times, the Daily Mail, The Observer, Tatler and the Sunday Express.
Alan Wall -  Alan Wall is an Australian elections manager and adviser who has held senior positions in the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), working in Kosovo, Nepal, Azerbaijan and Indonesia. Wall has been a Senior Advisor to Democracy International (2005-10) and served with the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Technical Assistance Group during the 1994 South African elections. He was associated with the Australian Electoral Commission from 1985 to 1994.
Albert Luthuli -  Inkosi Albert John Luthuli (1898-1967) was a South African educator and political figure. As President of the African National Congress from 1952 to 1967, he led opposition to apartheid in South Africa and became the first African to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
Albert Lutuli -  Inkosi Albert John Lutuli (1898-1967) was a South African educator and politician who served as President of the African National Congress from 1952 to 1967. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1961, the first recipient from outside Europe and the Americas.
- Synonyms: Lutuli
Alec Cairncross -  Alec Cairncross (1911-1998). British economist and civil servant.
Alec Douglas-Home -  Alec Douglas-Home (1903-1995). British politician, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (1955-1960), Prime Minister (1963-1964), and Foreign Secretary (1970-1974).
Alex Latim -  Alex Latim was a leading figure in Uganda’s Democratic Party in the period after independence. As leader of the opposition from 1964-71, he was involved in attempts to oust Prime Minister (and later President) Milton Obote through democratic and parliamentary measures.
Alex Salmond -  Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (b. 1954). Scottish Politician, leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) and currently the First Minister of Scotland.
Alexander Bustamante -  Sir Alexander Bustamante (1884-1977) was a Jamaican political figure who served as the first Prime Minister of Jamaica (1962-67). Bustamante was a prominent leader in Jamaica’s anti-colonial movement, associated with labour activism and trade union organisation. He was imprisoned in the 1940s for subversive activities.
Alexander Downer -  Alexander Downer (b. 1951). Australian politician, served as Foreign Minister from 1996 to 2007.
Alexis de Tocqueville -  Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) was a French political thinker who wrote influential volumes on democracy and revolution in both the French and American contexts. He is considered a representative of classical liberalism and an important precursor to the disciplines of sociology and political science.
- Synonyms: Tocqueville
Alfred Nzo -  Alfred Nzo (1925-2000). Secretary General of the ANC (1969-1991) and South African Minister of Foreign Affairs (1994-1999).
Ali Bhutto -  Ali Bhutto (1928-1979). Pakistani politician, served as President (1971-1973) and Prime Minister (1973-1977).
Alistair Campbell -  Alistair Campbell (b. 1957). British journalist, Tony Blair’s Director of Communications and Strategy (1997-2003).
Alister McIntosh -  Sir Alister Donald Miles McIntosh (1906-78). New Zealand diplomat and New Zealand’s first Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
Alister McIntyre -  Sir Meredith Alister McIntyre (b.1932) is a Grenadian economist and development planner who played a key role in the movement toward Caribbean integration as Secretary General of CARICOM from 1974-77 and Vice Chairman of the West Indian Commission. During his international career, McIntyre also served as Director of the Commodities Division, UNCTAD, Deputy Secretary General of UNCTAD, and Assistant Secretary General at the United Nations in New York. From 1988 to 1998 he was Vice Chancellor of the University of the West Indies, and later acted as Chief Technical Advisor to the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery.
All India Radio -  Major Indian radio network, founded in 1930.
Allan Boesak -  Allan Boesak, b.1946, is a South African Dutch Reformed Church cleric and anti-apartheid activist. In 1985 he won the Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award along with Winnie Mandela and Beyers Naude.
Alliance of Small Island States -  The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1990 to coordinate Small Island Developing States activity, especially with regard to global warming.
- Synonyms: AOSIS
Alliance Party -  The Alliance Party was a Fijian political party that ruled from 1966 to 1987 when it was beaten by a coalition led by Timoci Badavra.
Allison Ayida -  Allison Akene Ayida was a Nigerian civil servant in the post-independence period, serving as Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Economic Development.
Allister Sparks -  Allister Sparks (b.1933) is a South African writer and journalist who edited the influential Rand Daily Mail during the 1970s, having previously worked for the paper as a columnist in the 1960s. He was also editor of the Sunday Express and acted as correspondent for the Washington Post, The Observer, and NRC Handelsblad. Sparks has written a number of books on South Africa’s transition from apartheid, including Tomorrow is Another Country (1996). He founded the Institute for the Advancement of Journalism in South Africa in 1992.
Amara Essy -  Amara Essy (b.1944) is an Ivorian diplomat who has acted as Permanent Representative of Cote d’Ivoire to the United Nations (1981-90) and as his country’s Minister of Foreign Affairs (1994-99). He was President of the 49th Session of the UN General Assembly (1994-95) and was 7th Secretary-General of the Organisation of African Unity, overseeing its transformation into the African Union (2001-03).
Amartya Sen -  Amartya Kumar Sen (b.1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1998. He is Thomas W Lamont Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University, and previously served as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, UK, and Chancellor of Nalanda University, India.
American Embassy in Beirut -  The American Embassy in Beirut was attacked on Saturday, 23 October 1983. 241 US Marines were killed. This followed an earlier suicide bomb attack on the Embassy, on 18 April 1983, in which 63 were killed, including 17 Americans.
Amitav Banerji -  Amitav Banerji is a career diplomat from India who became Director of the Political Affairs Division (PAD), Commonwealth Secretariat, in 2009. Previous to this post he had served as Chief of Staff to the Secretary-General, 2000-09, as well as Special Adviser in PAD from 1990 to 2000.
Amnesty International -  Amnesty International (AI) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organisation which devotes its work to preventing and ending grave abuses of human rights, as well as demanding justice for those whose rights have been violated. It was established in London in 1961, and in 1977 won the Nobel Peace Prize for its campaigns against the use of torture. Currently, AI is headquartered in London, England.
ANC -  African National Congress. A South African political party, founded in 1912, that opposed apartheid and has been South Africa’s governing party since 1994.
Andrew Gilligan -  Andrew Gilligan (b. 1968). British journalist. His allegedly partial reporting of the causes of the Iraq war led to his resignation from the BBC in 2004.
Andrew Jackson Young -  Andrew Jackson Young (b.1932) is an American diplomat and political figure who served as United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 1977 to 1979. Young was active in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement and a supporter and friend of Martin Luther King Jr.
- Synonyms: Andy Young
Andrew Parker Bowles -  Brigadier Andrew Parker Bowles (b.1939) is a senior British military figure who served as Director of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps from 1991 to 1994. He was aide-de-camp to the Governor General of New Zealand (1965-67) and Senior Military Liaison Officer to Christopher Soames as Governor of Rhodesia, 1979-80.
Andrew Peacock -  Andrew Peacock (b. 1939). Australian politician. Member of the Liberal Party, which he led 1983-85 and 1989-90.
Andrew Williams -  Andrew Williams, Professor of International Relations at the University of St Andrews, acted as Editor for ‘Round Table: the Commonwealth Journal of International Studies’ from 2004 to 2008.
- Synonyms: Andy Williams
Andries Treurnicht -  Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993). South African politician, National Party MP from 1971. In 1982, along with 22 other MPs, he quit the party to found the Conservative Party of South Africa, which he led until his death.
Anglo-Boer War -  The war between Britain and Afrikaner settlers fought in southern Africa between 1899 and 1902, culminating in a costly British victory.
Anguilla crisis -  1967 and 1969 rebellions in Anguilla, in response to the 1967 British incorporation of Anguilla into a new dependency with Saint Christopher and Nevis. In 1971 Anguilla left Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla and assumed the status of a British Overseas Territory.
- Synonyms: tensions over St Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla
Anji Hunter -  Anji Hunter (b. 1955). British publicist, Tony Blair’s Director of Government Relations (1997-2001).
Antarctic Treaty System -  The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) is a series of agreements designed to regulate the continent’s place in international relations, on the basis that it has no native human population. The main treaty was opened for signature in 1959 and was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, based in Buenos Aires, oversees the mandate to allow scientific investigation and ban military activity on the continent.
Anthony Barber -  Anthony Barber (1920-2005). British politician, who served in a variety of ministerial positions including as Chancellor of the Exchequer (1970-1974). He also served on the Commonwealth Eminenet Persons Group on South Africa (1985-1986).
Anthony Crosland -  Charles Anthony Crosland (1918-1977) was a British Labour politician who served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (1976-77) in the government of James Callaghan. Crosland had previously served the government of Harold Wilson as Minister of State for Economic Affairs (1964-65), Secretary of State for Education and Science (1965-67), President of the Board of Trade (1967-69) and Secretary of State for Local Government and Regional Planning (1969-70).
Anthony Eden -  Anthony Eden (1897-1977). British politician, served as Foreign Secretary (1935-1938, 1940-1945, 1951-1955) and Prime Minister (1955-1957).
Anthony Gubbay -  Anthony Ray Gubbay (b.1932) is a Zimbabwean judge who served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe from 1990 to 2001. He was previously a Supreme Court judge (1983-90), a High Court judge (1977-83) and an advocate in private practice from 1974.
Anthony Siaguru -  Anthony Siaguru (1946-2004). Papua New Guinea lawyer and diplomat.
Anti-Apartheid Act -  The American Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Legislation passed by Congress against the will of President Reagan that imposed sanctions on South Africa.
Anti-Apartheid Committee at the UN -  The United Nations General Assembly established the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid was established in 1962.
Anti-Apartheid News -  Newsletter of the British-based Anti-Apartheid Movement.
Antony Duff -  Sir Arthur Antony Duff (1920-2000) was a British civil servant and intelligence officer who served as Director General of MI5 from 1985-88. A submarine commander in the Second World War, Duff later joined the Foreign Office and served in Cairo, Paris, Bonn, and Kuala Lumpur. He was Ambassador to Nepal in 1964, and then High Commissioner in Kenya. From 1979-80, he was Deputy Governor to Lord Soames in Southern Rhodesia and played a crucial role in negotiations for Zimbabwe’s independence.
Anwar Ibrahim -  Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim (b.1947) is a Malaysian politician and leading figure in the opposition People’s Justice Party. He was Leader of the Opposition in Malaysia from 2008 to 2015. Ibrahim was previously a member of the ruling UMNO; he acted as Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (1993-98) and Finance Minister (1991-98).
ANZAC -  Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.
ANZAC Day -  25th April. A day of remembrance held in Australia and New Zealand.
ANZUK Force -  A joint Australian-New Zealand-United Kingdom military force formed to defend the Pacific region (1971-1974).
Apartheid -  A system of legally enforced racial segregation implemented and upheld by the National Party in South Africa from 1948 – 1994
APEC -  Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 and is a forum seeking to promote free trade and economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.
APHEDA -  Australian People for Health, Education and Development Abroad (APHEDA) is the overseas agency of the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Established in 1985, APHEDA defines its work in terms of justice, solidarity and self-reliance as opposed to charity. It is also known as Union Aid Abroad.
Archbishop of Canterbury -  Head of the worldwide Anglican communion.
Archibald Nedd -  Sir Archibald Nedd was a Grenadian legal scholar and jurist who served as Chief Justice of Grenada from 1979 to 1986.
Ariston Chambati -  Ariston Chambati (1935-1995) was a Zimbabwean political figure, diplomat and public servant who was appointed his country’s Finance Minister in 1995. Chambati had previously been Zimbabwe’s Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany (1980-82). As a leading member of ZAPU, he had taken part in the 1976 Geneva and 1979 Lancaster House negotiations over the creation of Zimbabwe out of Rhodesia. Chambati had served as a Research Officer in the International Affairs Division, Commonwealth Secretariat, from 1971 to 1972.
Arnold Smith -  Arnold Smith (1915 –1994). Canadian diplomat, the first Commonwealth Secretary-General (1965–1975).
Arthur Bottomley -  Arthur George Bottomley, Baron Bottomley (1907-95). British Labour politician and later a life peer. He was Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations (1964-66) and Minister of Overseas Development (1966-67).
Arthur Chaskalson -  Arthur Chaskalson (1931-2012) was a South African jurist who served as President of the Constitutional Court of South Africa (1994-2001) and Chief Justice of South Africa (2001-05). Chaskalson was a human rights lawyer in apartheid-era South Africa, participating in the 1963 Rivonia Trial as part of the defence team.
Arthur Philip -  Arthur Philip (1738-1814). British naval officer and first governor of the colony of New South Wales in Australia (1788-1795).
Article 19 -  Article 19 is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organisation which focuses its work on human rights, particularly the defence and promotion of freedom of expression and freedom of information. Established in 1987, its name refers to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which establishes the right to freedom of opinion and expression. The organisation is based in London, England.
Aruna Roy -  Aruna Roy (b.1946) is an Indian political figure and social activist who founded the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathana (Workers and Peasants Strength Union) in 1987. Roy has been a leading campaigner in the Right to Information movement in India, and was appointed in 2004 to the National Advisory Council.
Ascension Island -  A British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean, used by the British military as a staging post during the 1982 Falklands War.
ASEAN -  The Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Formed in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a political and economic organization of Southeast Asian countries.
Asian Development Bank -  The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional financial institution with headquarters in Metro Manila, Philippines. Established in 1966, its stated aim is to facilitate economic development in Asia. It counts 67 countries as members, with 48 of these from within Asia and the Pacific region.
- Synonyms: ADB
Asian financial crisis -  The 1997 Asian financial crisis was a period of economic collapse following the much-celebrated ‘Asian economic miracle’ of the late 1980s and 1990s. The crisis was provoked by the collapse of the Thai bhat due to severe financial overextension and a real estate bubble, triggering a chain reaction across South East Asia of slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and the withdrawal of foreign capital. Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand, Hong Kong, Laos, Malaysia and the Philippines were among the most affected countries.
Asma Jahangir -  Dr Asma Jilani Jahangir (b.1952) is a Pakistani lawyer and activist who was a founding member of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. Jahangir played a prominent role in the Lawyers’ Movement against the actions of President Pervez Musharraf and, in 2010, was elected President of the Supreme Court Bar Association of Pakistan. She was a member of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group (2010-11), and serves the United Nations as Special Rapporteur on Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions.
Aso Rock Statement -  The Aso Rock Statement on Multilateral Trade was issued by Commonwealth Heads of Government at their meeting in Abuja, Nigeria, in 2003. The Statement affirms a commitment to a “transparent, rule-based multilateral trading system”, advocating increased trading opportunities as “the most potent weapon to combat poverty” and attaching the highest priority to delivering the Doha Development Agenda. Click here to read the Statement in full.
Association of Commonwealth Universities -  Association of Commonwealth Universities. An organisation that links universities in Commonwealth counties. Originally founded in 1913, the current name was adopted in 1963.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee -  Atal Bihari Vajpayee (b. 1924). Indian Statesman. As a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, he was briefly Prime Minister in 1996, and again 1998-2004.
- Synonyms: Vajpayee
Attahiru Jega -  Professor Attahiru Muhammadu Jega (b.1957) is a Nigerian academic who was appointed Chairman of Nigeria’s Independent National Electoral Commission in 2010. He also serves as Vice-Chancellor of Bayero University, Kano, and is a former President of the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU).
Auckland CHOGM meeting -  The Commonwealth Heads of Government met in Auckland, New Zealand in 1995. The CHOGM was dominated by events in Nigeria, country was suspended from the Commonwealth.
AusAID -  The Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) was the main government agency responsible for managing Australia’s overseas aid program from 1974 to 2013. In 2013, it was integrated into the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, after the Abbott Government announced it wished to align aid work with diplomatic policy.
Australian Council of Trade Unions -  The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) is a national trade union body representing forty-six affiliated unions. It was established in 1927 in Melbourne, though it was not until 1981 that the ACTU successfully integrated unions for white collar workers and government employee bodies, thus becoming the ‘peak’ workers' organisation in the country.
- Synonyms: ACTU
AWB -  The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement). A far right South African political party, founded in 1973.
Azim Hussain -  Azim Hussain (1914-2007) was an Indian diplomat who served as Deputy High Commissioner to the United Kingdom in the late 1950s and early 1960s and Ambassador to Egypt and Lebanon in the 1960s. From 1970 to 1978, he was Deputy Secretary General of the Commonwealth, managing the transition from Arnold Smith to Shridath Ramphal as Secretaries General in this period.
Aziz Pahad -  Aziz Pahad (b. 1940). South African politician and anti-apartheid activist, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs (1994-).