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C Odumegwu Ojukwu -  C Odumegwu Ojukwu (1933-2011) was a Nigerian military officer who led the breakaway Republic of Biafra from 1967 to 1970. Ojuwku was thus a key protagonist of the Nigerian civil war. Following its resolution, he spent thirteen years in exile before being pardoned in 1982 and returning to Nigeria to lead the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA).
CA/B -  Commonwealth Advisory Bureau. An independent think tank and advisory service for the Commonwealth.
Cabinet Office -  A department of the British government, founded in 1916. The Cabinet Office supports the work of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, which comprises senior ministers that lead government departments.
Cal Best -  James Calbert Best (1926-2007). A Canadian diplomat, and Canada’s first black High Commissioner. In 1975 he was seconded to the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Caltex -  Caltex was founded in 1936 as the California Texas Oil Company, and is currently one of the major international brand names of Chevron Corporation. Operating across some 60 countries in Asia, the Middle East and Southern Africa, it is particularly dominant in the Australian market. In South Africa, Caltex owns a major refinery in Milnerton, Cape Town, and a manufacturing plant in Durban. Caltex was frequently criticised for its South African operations during the apartheid era.
Canaan Banana -  Canaan Sodindo Banana (1936-2003) was a Zimbabwean political figure and Methodist minister who served as President of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987. Banana was also a diplomat for the Organisation of African Unity and headed the Department of Religion at the University of Zimbabwe.
Canadian International Development Agency -  Canadian International Development Agency. Established in 1968, it was responsible for administering foreign aid to developing countries. In 2013 it was merged with the Department of Foreign Affairs, becoming Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development.
- Synonyms: CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency -  The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was the primary organisation administering Canada’s foreign aid programmes in developing countries. It was established in 1968 under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and reported to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister for International Cooperation. In 2013, CIDA was dissolved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper and its functions incorporated into the Department of Foreign Affairs.
- Synonyms: CIDA
Canadian Labour Congress -  A organisation that links Canadian unions , founded in 1956.
Canadian Security Intelligence Service -  The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) is the Canadian government agency responsible for collecting, analysing and reporting intelligence on Canada’s national security situation, as well as conducting security operations inside the country and abroad. It was established in 1984 by an Act of Parliament and is headquartered in Ottawa.
- Synonyms: CSIS
Caprivi Strip -  A part of Namibia, bordered to the south by Botswana, and to the north by Angola and Zambia.
Caribbean Basin Initiative -  The Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) was an American tariff and trade program initiated in 1983 with several Central American and Caribbean countries. It was established by the 1983 Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, though its effectiveness was reduced with the establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, which gave Mexico a distinct advantage in trade with the United States.
Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility -  The Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF) Project was established in 2007 and runs under the umbrella of the World Bank. It is the first multi-country ‘risk pool’ in the world. As an insurance instrument, it aims to provide a better mechanism for dealing with catastrophic risks in the Caribbean region, providing financial liquidity quickly when a policy is triggered.
Caribbean Court of Justice -  The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is a judicial institution located in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, which serves as the main court of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). The CCJ oversees the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas, the founding document of CARICOM, and hears appeals from all member states.
- Synonyms: CCJ
Caribbean Development Bank -  The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) was established in 1969 and is headquartered in Bridgetown, Barbados. As a financial institution, it assists Caribbean countries in the development of social and economic programs in the region.
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute -  The Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) is a regional technical institute that was first established in 1989, evolving out of a 1976 Rockefeller Brothers Fund project at the University of Michigan. Headquartered in Trinidad and Tobago, CANARI promotes and facilitates participatory approaches to natural resource governance in the Caribbean.
- Synonyms: CANARI
Caribbean Single Market and Economy -  The Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) is a development strategy first articulated by heads of government in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) at their July 1989 meeting in Grenada. It promotes economic integration in the region, widening membership to CARICOM and increased links with global trading and economic systems.
CARIBCAN -  The Caribbean-Canada Trade Agreement (CARIBCAN) was established in 1986 by the Parliament of Canada to promote trade and investment between Canadian markets and the Commonwealth Caribbean. It gives preferential duty-free access to the Commonwealth Caribbean and facilitates knowledge exchange and technological assistance.
CARICOM -  Caribbean Community. In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the Seventh Heads of Government Conference agreed to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the Common Market would be an integral part. The treaty establishing the Caribbean Community was signed at Chaguaramas on 4 July 1973.
Carnation Revolution -  Portuguese revolution in 1974 that toppled the dictatorial government, bringing democracy.
Carolyn McMaster -  Carolyn McMaster is a Canadian diplomat and development expert who spent much of her career supporting Canadian government projects in sub-Saharan Africa. From 1990 to 2000, she was Deputy Head of the Southern African Task Force, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. She was later head of the Commonwealth Section (2000-203) and then Deputy High Commissioner to New Zealand (2003-07).
Carter Center -  The Carter Center in an NGO that aims to advance human rights. It was founded by the former US President, Jimmy Carter, and his wife, Rosalynn Carter, in 1982.
Caspar Weinberger -  Caspar Weinberger (1919-2006). US Secretary of Defence (1981-1987).
Cassam Uteem -  Cassam Uteem (b.1941) is a Mauritian politician who served as President of Mauritius from 1992 to 2002. In 2014, Uteem was appointed Special Envoy and Head of the United Nations Electoral Observation Mission in Burundi. He is also a member of the Global Leadership Foundation.
Catherine Ashton -  Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland (b. 1956). British politician and member of the Labour Party. In 2009 she became the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in the European Union.
Causeway railway -  A railway linking Singapore and Malaysia, originally built in 1923.
CCFMSA -  The Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (CCFMSA) was established at the 1987 Vancouver CHOGM and tasked with facilitating international efforts to combat South Africa’s apartheid system. The Committee was comprised of the Foreign Ministers of Australia, Canada, Guyana, India, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Joe Clark was appointed Chairperson.
Central African Federation -  The political union between Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Intended to become independent as a single state, the Federation broke up due difference over the political power of the white minority.
Central Asian Research Centre -  British research organisation, founded in 1953.
Chama Cha Mapinduzi -  Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) is the leading political party in Tanzania, established in 1977 following the merger of Julius Nyerere’s Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party. Since the restoration of a multi-party system in 1992, CCM has consistently won general elections in Tanzania, including a 2005 landslide of 80 per cent of the popular vote.
Chanak in 1922 -  A crisis which saw British troops guarding a neutral zone around the Dardanelles threatened by Turkish forces. The British response revealed tensions between British and Canadian governments.
Chandrika Kumaratunga -  Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (b.1945) is a Sri Lankan political figure who served as President of Sri Lanka from 1994 to 2005. She is the daughter of former Prime Ministers Solomon Bandaranaike and Sirimavo Bandaranaike. Kumaratunga was leader of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party until 2005.
Charles Clarke -  Charles Rodway Clarke (b.1950) is a British politician who served as Home Secretary from 2004 to 2006 in the government of Tony Blair. Clarke was previously Secretary of State for Education and Skills (2002-04) and Minister without Portfolio (2001-02).
Charles Gunawardena -  Charles Gunawardena was a Sri Lankan journalist and diplomat who served the Commonwealth Secretariat as Director of Information in the 1980s. He had previously handled information and press relations for Sri Lanka’s Foreign Ministry and as a diplomat in London and New Delhi.
Charles Njonjo -  Charles Njonjo (b. 1920). Kenyan politician. He was Attorney General of Kenya, 1963-79 and Minister of Constitutional Affairs, 1980-83.
Charles Taylor -  Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (b.1948) was a Liberian political figure who acted as President of Liberia from 1997 until 2003. Trained as a guerrilla fighter in Libya in the 1980s, he led the National Patriotic Front of Liberia in the First Liberian Civil War (1989-96). As a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Losing control of Liberia during the Second Civil War, he went into exile in Nigeria in 2003 and was later detained by UN authorities before being sentenced to 50 years in prison by the Special Court for Sierra Leone.
Charlottetown Accord -  The Charlottetown Accord was an agreement proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992 to amend the Constitution of Canada and secure the support of the Quebec government for that document. Proposing a number of major reforms to Federal institutions like the Supreme Court and Canadian Senate, the Accord also recognised Quebec as a distinct society and devolved much authority to the provinces. It was defeated in a national referendum on 26 October 1992.
Chatham House Rules -  A rule that allows for comments from a meeting to be freely quoted, but not ascribed to an individual.
Cheddi Jagan -  Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918-97). Guyanese politician and member of the People’s Progressive Party. He was President of Guyana, 1992-97.
Chequers -  A British country house used by the Prime Minister.
Cheryl Carolus -  Cheryl Carolus (b. 1958). South African politician. She was South African High Commissioner in London, 1998-2001.
Cheryl Dorall -  Cheryl Dorall is a Malaysian journalist who served the Commonwealth Secretariat in London as Deputy Director of Media and Information Services from 1989 to 2001. She was subsequently communications consultant to the Caribbean Development Bank and the UN Economic Commission for Africa, and is Secretary of the Commonwealth Journalists Association UK branch (2008- ).
Chet Crocker -  Chester Crocker (b.1941) is an American diplomat who, as President Ronald Reagan’s Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (1981-1989), was influential in the negotiations for Namibian independence and in articulating a policy of “constructive engagement” toward apartheid South Africa.
Chief Justice Bandaranaike -  Shirani Bandaranaike (b. 1958). Appointed Chief Justice of Sri Lanka in May 2011. She was impeached by Parliament and removed from office in January 2013.
Chinmaya Gharekhan -  Chinmaya Gharekhan is a retired Indian diplomat who served as India’s Ambassador to Vietnam (1975-76) and to the United Nations in Geneva (1977-80). Gharekhan was the Indian Prime Minister’s Advisor on Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1986 and his served both the UN and the Government of India as Special Envoy to the Middle East.
CHOGM -  Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Every two years Commonwealth heads of government meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, with the aim of promoting common initiatives.
CHOGRM -  Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meetings (CHOGRMs) had their origins in a series of talks between the Australian and Indian Governments under the Prime Minsisters Malcolm Fraser, Moraji Desai, and Indira Gandhi.
Chris Child -  Chris Child is a British political figure who served as Head of the Democracy Section in the Commonwealth Secretariat Political Affairs Division. He had previously worked in the office of the Leader of the British Labour Party and was Trade Union and Local Groups Officer of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), UK, from 1976-82. He was also Deputy Secretary of the AAM.
Chris Fismer -  Chris Fismer (b. 1956). South African politician, served as a minister in Nelson Mandela’s government (1995-1996).
Chris Hani -  Chris Hani (1942-1993) was a prominent figure in the South African anti-apartheid movement, acting as leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and Chief of Staff for the African National Congress’ armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe. Hani was assassinated outside his home in Boksburg on 10 April 1993.
Chris Heunis -  Chris Heunis (1927-2006). South African politician who held various ministerial positions from 1978 to 1989, including Minister for Constitutional Development (1982-1989).
Chris Laidlaw -  Chris Laidlaw (b.1943). New Zealand politician and diplomat. Assistant to Sonny Ramphal.
Chris Liebenberg -  Christo Ferro Liebenberg (b.1934) is a South African banker who served as Minister of Finance from 1994 to 1996 in the Government of National Unity led by Nelson Mandela. Liebenberg had previously worked for Nedcor Bank from 1952 to 1994.
Chris Patten -  Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, (b.1944) is a British public servant who served as the final British Governor of Hong Kong (1992-97) and as Chairman of the BBC Trust (2011-14). Patten, who chaired the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1992, was appointed Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 2003.
Christine Lagarde -  Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde (b. 1956). French politician and lawyer. She was France’s Trade Minister, 2005-07. She is currently Managing Director of the IMF (2011-).
- Synonyms: Mrs Lagarde
Christine Mulinda-Matovu -  Christine Mulinda-Matovu is a Ugandan policy advisor and development expert who worked as Deputy Director, Legal and Constitutional Affairs, and Head of the Human Rights Unit at the Commonwealth Secretariat from 1994 to 2001. Mulinda-Matovu was later Country Representative for Action on Disability and Development (2003-08) and Executive Director for Women’s Dignity (2008-12).
Christopher Soames -  Arthur Christopher Soames, Baron Soames, (1920-1987) was a British Conservative politician who served as the last Governor of Southern Rhodesia (1979-80). He served the Government of Harold Macmillan as Secretary of State for War and as Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and also served as British Ambassador to France (1968-72) and European Commissioner for Trade and External Relations (1973-77).
- Synonyms: Governor Soames
Chuks Ihekaibeya -  Columbus Chukwujindu ‘Chuks’ Ihekaibeya (1942-2014) was a Sudanese civil servant who served the Commonwealth Secretariat as Chief Programme Officer, Political Affairs Division, and as Special Assistant to Secretary General of the Commonwealth Chief Emeka Anyaoku.
CIA -  Central Intelligence Agency. A major American intelligence gathering organisation, founded in 1947.
Claire L’Heureux Dubé -  Claire L’Heureux Dubé (b.1927) is a French-Canadian judge who served as Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1987 to 2002.
Clare Hollingworth -  Clare Hollingworth (b.1911) is a British journalist who reported on the Second World War from Poland and, in subsequent decades, on conflicts in Palestine, Algeria, China, Aden and Vietnam.
Clare Short -  Clare Short (b. 1946). British politician and member of the Labour Party. She was Secretary of State for International Development, 1997-2003.
CLGF -  Commonwealth Local Government Forum. A Commonwealth quasi-governmental organisation composed of members involved in local government in Commonwealth countries.
- Synonyms: Commonwealth Local Government Association
Clyde Sanger -  Clyde Sanger (b. 1928). Canadian writer and journalist.
CMAG -  Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group. Established by Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1995, the CMAG upholds the terms of the Harare Declaration.
CND -  The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was formed in Britain in 1957 and advocates the global abolition of nuclear weapons and tighter international regulations around the arms trade. It is one of the foremost pacifist movements in Europe.
CODESA -  The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) is the name for a series of multi-party negotiations on the ending of apartheid in South Africa, hosted in 1991 and 1992. CODESA I took place in December 1991, nearly two years after the unbanning of political parties and the release of Nelson Mandela. CODESA II began in May 1992, though negotiations collapsed following the Boipatong massacre in June.
Coetzee -  Kobie Coetsee (1931-2000). South African politician who served in a number of positions including Minister of Justice (1980-1993) and President of the Senate (1994-1997)
Cohen -  Herman Cohen (b. 1932). American diplomat, served as Assistant secretary of State for African Affairs (1989-1993).
Cold War -  A period of ideological tension from around 1945 to 1991 between capitalist nations led by the USA and communist nations led by the USSR.
Colin Ball -  Colin Ball (b.1943) is a British writer and civil servant who served as Director of the Commonwealth Foundation from 2000 to 2004. Ball had previously worked as a VSO volunteer in Malaysia (1961-2), a teacher in the UK, Ghana and Nigeria (1960s), and as a civil servant within the Home Office and Department of Employment, UK (1970s). He also founded a not-for-profit research organisation called the Centre for Employment Initiatives.
Colin Legum -  Colin Legum (1919-2003). South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist.
Colin Powell -  Colin Powell (b. 1937). American soldier and politician, served as Secretary of State (2001-2005).
Colleen Lowe Morna -  Colleen Lowe Morna is a Zimbabwe-born journalist specialising in issues of gender and development. She joined the Commonwealth Secretariat as a Senior Researcher on the Africa desk in 1991, later serving as Chief Programme Officer of the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa. She has acted as an advisor on gender and institutional development to the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Assistance, and was the founding CEO of the South African Commission on Gender Equality.
Colombo Plan -  The Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific is a regional organisation that was established in 1950 out of a Commonwealth Conference of Foreign Ministers in Colombo, Sri Lanka. It includes around 27 member countries and activities are coordinated by a Consultative Committee, a Council and a Secretariat. The Colombo Plan focuses primarily on human resources development and technical assistance.
Colonial Office -  The British government department responsible for colonial territories. Merged with the Commonwealth Relations Office to become the Commonwealth Office in 1966.
COMECON -  The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) was an organisation composed of socialist states from around the world and led by the Soviet Union between 1949 and 1991. A response to the formation of the Organisation for European Economic Co-Operation in Western Europe, COMECON was intended by Moscow to strengthen international socialist alliances at an economic level.
Commercial Farmers Union of Zimbabwe -  The Commercial Farmers Union (CFU) of Zimbabwe is an organisation committed to facilitating development of the country’s agricultural sector. It was founded in 1980 with the independence of Zimbabwe, though the organisation traces its history back to 1892 and the establishment of the Rhodesian Farmers and Landowners Association.
Commissioner for Democracy -  Establishing a Commissioner for Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Human Rights was one of the recommendations made by the Eminent Persons Group in their report to the 2011 CHOGM.
Committee of 24 -  The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization, or the Committee of 24, was created in 1961 to oversee and implement UN policy around the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples. The Committee is a successor to the Committee on Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories and, as its name suggests, includes twenty-four countries as members.
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau -  The Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International (CABI) is an international, not-for-profit organisation focused on problems of agricultural development and the environment. It was established in 1910 and today includes 48 member countries, with projects ongoing in more than 70. CABI specialises in commodities, invasive species and scientific communication.
- Synonyms: CABI
Commonwealth Associated Organisation -  Quasi-governmental Commonwealth organisations, a category of Commonwealth organisation created in 2002.
Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management -  The Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management (CAPAM) is a forum intended to facilitate exchange of knowledge and practice in public service management and renewal. It also focuses on citizen-centred service delivery and leadership development. CAPAM was established in 1994, emerging in part out of the priorities set in the 1991 Harare Declaration.
- Synonyms: CAPAM
Commonwealth Broadcasting Association -  An organisation that brings together public service broadcasters of Commonwealth countries, founded in 1945.
Commonwealth Business Council -  The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC) was formed at the 1997 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Edinburgh, United Kingdom, with an aim to promote global trade and investment across the Commonwealth of Nations. Acting as a bridge between governments and the private sector, the CBC promoted the liberalisation of services and regional economic integration. Dissolving in 2014, its final Director General was Peter Callaghan.
Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office -  The Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office (CIO) is one of the main leadership positions in the Commonwealth, typically held by the host chairperson of the most recent Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). The position was created after the 1999 CHOGM in Durban, South Africa, meaning the first CIO was President Thabo Mbeki.
Commonwealth Charter -  The Commonwealth Charter was agreed in December 2012. The Charter sets out the principal values and aspiration of the modern Commonwealth. Click here to read the document in full.
Commonwealth Connects -  Commonwealth Connects (CC) is an international network that allows accredited Commonwealth organisations and partners to collaborate and share knowledge in a secure online environment. Supported by the Commonwealth Secretariat, CC has been promoted as “a vehicle for technology and knowledge transfer in areas such as eGovernment, Telecommunications Regulation and related activities that have a bearing on national, social, and economic development.”
Commonwealth Day -  The second Monday in March, marked by a multi-faith service in Westminster Abbey and a message delivered by Elizabeth II.
Commonwealth Development Corporation -  The Commonwealth Development Corporation or ‘CDC Group’ is a development-oriented financial institution overseen by the Department for International Development, UK Government. Founded in 1948 in London, the CDC’s investment portfolio focuses on emerging markets in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with a particular emphasis on South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
Commonwealth Election Observer Mission (Zimbabwe) -  A Commonwealth Observer Group that was sent to monitor the 1980 elections upon the independence of Zimbabwe. The group was made up from statesmen from different Commonwealth countries.
Commonwealth Expert Group on Democracy and Development -  The Commonwealth Expert Group on Democracy and Development was established at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Coolum, Australia, in 2002. The group, chaired by the Indian politician (and later Prime Minister) Manmohan Singh, was tasked with identifying ‘how democracies might best be supported in combating poverty’. The resulting report – ‘Making Democracy Work for Pro-Poor Development’ - was presented at the 2003 CHOGM in Abuja.
Commonwealth Foundation -  The Commonwealth Foundation is a Commonwealth organisation founded in 1965 to promote the growth of professional organisations and exchange of skills, and now pursuing a broader developmental agenda.
Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation -  The Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation (CFTC) is an organisation administered by the Commonwealth Secretariat that delivers technical assistance to Commonwealth member countries. A mutual and voluntary fund, it was established in 1971.
- Synonyms: CFTC
Commonwealth Games -  The Commonwealth Games is an international sporting event that takes place every four years and brings together athletes from across the Commonwealth of Nations. It began in 1930 as the British Empire Games, and is overseen today by the Commonwealth Games Federation.
Commonwealth Human Ecology Council -  The Commonwealth Human Ecology Council (CHEC) is an international development charity based in the UK and founded in 1969. CHEC focuses in its work on the promotion of sustainable solutions for the preservation and use of natural resource, looking particularly at the relationship between ecosystems and human societies.
- Synonyms: CHEC
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative -  The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) is an international, non-governmental organisation established in 1987 to support the implementation of the Harare Declaration in the Commonwealth of Nations. It provides thematic human rights reports to every Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. In 1993, its headquarters moved from London to New Delhi, India.
Commonwealth Institute -  A Commonwealth educational organisation that was operative between 1962 and 2000. It was originally founded in 1887 as the Imperial Institute.
Commonwealth Journalists Association -  (CJA) A group linking journalists from Commonwealth countries, founded in 1978.
Commonwealth Lawyers Association -  The Commonwealth Lawyers Association (CLA) was established in 1986 in Jamaica, emerging from the Commonwealth Legal Bureau (established in 1968) and linked to the Commonwealth & Empire Law Conferences first organised in London in 1955. The CLA aims to facilitate exchange between legal professionals, academics and students across the Commonwealth on issues of legal education, professional ethics and approaches to the rule of law.
Commonwealth Magistrates and Judges Association -  Founded in 1970, the Commonwealth Magistrates and Judges Association acts as a network for judicial officers in the Commonwealth. The work of its Secretary General, Executive Committee and General Assembly is directed to promoting the independence of the judiciary and advancing education in law, justice and the prevention of crime.
Commonwealth Network of Information Technology for Development -  The Commonwealth Network of Information Technology for Development (COMNET-IT) is an independent international foundation headquartered in Valletta, Malta. Established in 1995 by the Commonwealth Secretariat and the Government of Malta, COMNET-IT has supported IT-related policy development and championed the development of the Commonwealth Action Programme for the Digital Divide.
- Synonyms: COMNET-IT
Commonwealth of Learning -  The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) is an international organisation promoting and developing learning and distance education resources in association with Commonwealth member states. Headquartered in Vancouver, Canada, the COL was founded at the 1987 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. It has since become one of the world leaders in distance education provision. .
Commonwealth of Nations -  The official name of the Commonwealth since 1949, before which it was known as the British Commonwealth of Nations.
Commonwealth Organisations Committee on Zimbabwe -  A committee of Commonwealth organisations founded in 2009 to engage with Zimbabwean representatives and civil society organisations.
Commonwealth Parliamentary Association -  A Commonwealth organisation that promotes good governance. Founded in 1911 as the Empire Parliamentary Association, and renamed in 1948.
Commonwealth Police Development Task Force -  The Commonwealth Police Development Task Force (CPDTF) is an initiative supported by Commonwealth member governments and charged with providing technical and financial assistance to community safety programmes in post-conflict situations. The CPDTF arrived in Sierra Leone in 1998, led by British detective Keith Biddle, and provided professional expertise and training programmes as part of the restructuring of the Sierra Leone police after that country’s Civil War.
Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit -  The Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit (CPSU) was a think-tank established in 1998 within the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, and devoting its work to issues of globalisation, democracy, civil society and human rights. In 2011, it was rebranded as the Commonwealth Advisory Bureau (CA/B), but in 2013 its functions were incorporated into the wider work of the Institute.
Commonwealth Prime Minister’ Conferences -  Biennial meetings of Commonwealth prime ministers held between 1944 and 1969. From 1971, the meetings were termed Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings.
Commonwealth Private Investment Initiative -  The Commonwealth Private Investment Initiative (CPII) was launched by the Secretariat in 1995 to promote emerging markets and small economies to commercial investors. Four regional funds were established for Africa, the Caribbean, the Pacific and South Asia. The CPII sought to challenge conventional notions of risk in South-South and North-South partnerships, promoting development among member countries. The initiative was renewed in 2005 with ‘CPII2’.
Commonwealth Secretariat -  The Commonwealth Secretariat is the principal inter-governmental body of the Commonwealth, responsible for promoting cooperation between members. Founded in 1965.
- Synonyms: ComSec
Commonwealth Smart Partnership -  The Smart Partnership initiative was adopted by Commonwealth heads of state at the 1995 CHOGM and is linked to the Commonwealth Partnership for Technology Management (CPTM) and other technical assistance programmes. Its inaugural summit was hosted by Mahathir bin Mohamad at Langkawi in Malaysia. See also the ‘Langkawi International Dialogue’ (LID).
Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation -  The Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation is the main Commonwealth membership organisation in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), supporting its members through research and consultancy, training and capacity development, and regular events and conferences. Founded in 1966 and based in London, the CTO currently focuses on issues of regulation, mobile broadband, cybersecurity, youth and ICT, skills development, and disability access.
Commonwealth Trade Union Council -  The Commonwealth Trade Union Council (CTUC) was established in 1979 to coordinate activities between trade unions in Commonwealth countries. In 2004, it was renamed the Commonwealth Trade Union Group (CTUG) and in 2007 boasted a combined membership of 30 million.
- Synonyms: CTUC
Commonwealth Veterinary Association -  The Commonwealth Veterinary Association (CVA) was founded in 1967with the aim of promoting standards of education, ethics and service in the veterinary profession across the various member countries of the Commonwealth.
Communications Division -  A department dealing with publicity and press in the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Congress House -  The London building housing the offices of the Trades Union Congress.
Congress of the People -  The Congress of the People was a meeting held in Kliptown, South Africa, in June 1955. During the Congress, the ‘Freedom Charter’ – stating the core principles of the anti-apartheid movement – was officially adopted by the South African Congress Alliance. The second day of the meeting was broken up by police.
Connie Mulder -  Connie Mulder (1925-1988). South African politician. Stood against PW Botha for the leadership of the National Party in 1978.
Constand Viljoen -  Constand Viljoen (b.1933). South African soldier and politician.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women -  The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979. It considers issues of women’s rights in the public sphere, economic and social rights, right to equality in marriage and other questions of non-discrimination and sex stereotypes. CEDAW has been ratified by 189 states.
- Synonyms: CEDAW
Convention on the Future of Europe -  The Convention on the Future of Europe, also known as the European Convention, was established in 2001 by the European Council in order to produce a draft constitution for the European Union. A draft treaty was finished in July 2003 and signed by 25 member states of the European Union in 2004. In 2005, the document was rejected by French and Dutch voters. The Treaty of Lisbon was created to replace the Constitutional Treaty.
Coolum CHOGM -  The 2002 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Colum, Queensland, Australia.
COSATU -  The Congress of South African Trade Unions. A South African federation of trade unions, founded in 1985.
Cosby Show -  The Cosby Show was an American television sitcom that ran from 1984 until 1992. It starred the comedian Bill Cosby and followed the comedic exploits of the upper middle-class African-American Huxtable family living in Brooklyn, New York.
Council for Assisting Refugee Academics -  The Council for Assisting Refugee Academics (CARA) is a British charity which supports the relocation of academics unable to continue their work in their countries of origin due to persecution or conflict. It was founded in 1933 to assist Jewish academics fleeing Nazi Germany. In 2014, it was renamed the Council for At-Risk Academics; before 1999, it was known as the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning (SPSL).
- Synonyms: CARA
Coventry Four -  Four South African men arrested in Coventry in the UK in 1984 and charged with conspiring to break the arms export ban to South Africa. The affair clouded diplomatic relations between Britain and South Africa.
Cranley Onslow -  Cranley Onslow, Baron Onslow of Woking (1926-2001). British Conservative politician. Minister of State at the Foreign Commonwealth Office from 1982 to 1983 and Chairman of the 1922 Committee from 1984 to 1992. Father of Commonwealth Oral Histories interviewer Dr Sue Onslow.
CRD -  Conservative Research Department. A branch of the British Conservative Party concerned with formulating policy, founded in 1929.
Creation of Bangladesh -  Bangladesh became independent in 1971 following the defeat of Pakistani forces trying to retain the territory as part of Pakistan.
CRO -  Commonwealth Relations Office. The British government department responsible for relations with the Commonwealth from 1947 to 1966.
Cuban Missile Crisis -  Cold War crisis of 1962 sparked by the Soviet Union basing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
CUF -  Civic United Front. Liberal Tanzanian political party formed in 1992.
Cuthbert Obwangor -  Cuthbert Obwangor (1920-2012) was a founding member of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) along with Milton Obote, Grace Ibingira, Felix Onama, Mathias Ngobi and others. He acted as UPC Treasurer from its establishment in 1960 until 1967. He also served the post-independence Obote government variously as Minister of Cabinet Affairs, of Economics, of Regional Administration and of Justice and Law.
Cyril Ramaphosa -  Cyril Ramaphosa (b. 1952). South African politician and trade union leader.
Cyrus Rustomjee -  Dr Cyrus Rustomjee (b.1961) is a South African economist and financial advisor who served as Director of the Economic Affairs Division, Commonwealth Secretariat, from 2009 to 2014. He was previously Chairperson of the Financial Services Board in South Africa (2003-09) and member of the G20 Secretariat during South Africa’s term as G20 Chair (2007).
Cyrus Vance -  Cyrus Vance (1917-2002). American politician and diplomat, served as Secretary of State (1977-1980) and as a United Nations envoy (1991-1993).
- Synonyms: Secretary Vance