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UDF - United Democratic Front. A South African anti-aparthied organisation, founded in 1983.
UDI - Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Rhodesia’s 1965 declaration of independence without British agreement, intended to preserve white minority rule.
UDM - United Democratic Movement. A South African political party, founded in 1997.
Uhuru Kenyatta - Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta (b. 1961). Kenyan politician. He is the incumbent President of Kenya (2013-).
Ujamaa - Ujamaa is the Swahili word for 'socialism', connected via the root 'jamaa' to the concept of family and extended support networks. Ujamaa was the underlying concept informing Julius Nyerere’s social and economic policies whilst he was President of Tanzania, set out in the 1967 Arusha Declaration.
Umkhonto we Sizwe - Umkhonto we Sizwe (‘Spear of the Nation’; abbreviated as MK) was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), operating from 1961 to 1990. MK was founded following the 1960 Sharpeville Massacre and represents a turn away from non-violent struggle in South Africa. Branded as a ‘terrorist’ organisation by both the South African government and the United States, its members included Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Chris Hani, Joe Slovo and Thabo Mbeki, among others..
UN - United Nations. Major international organisation, founded in 1945.
UN Security Council Resolution 435 - UN Security Council Resolution 435. The resolution called for a ceasefire and elections in South West Africa (South African occupied Namibia), and was adopted by the United Nations Security Council in 1978.
UNCTAD - The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Established in 1964 to promote to trade, investment and development opportunities in developing countries.
UNDP - United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). A global development network founded in 1965 that provides expert advice, training, and grant support to developing countries.
UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. A United Nations agency founded in 1946.
UNHCR - The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the central UN agency for the protection and support of refugees. Established in 1950, it now works in 125 countries and has staff based in 109 regional and branch offices around the world.
UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations. Its aim is to promote industrial development in developing countries.
UNITA - UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) is an Angolan political party founded in 1966. It thought against the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) in the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002), receiving military aid from the United States and South Africa.
United Malays National Organisation - The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) is a Malaysian political party and has been part of ruling coalitions in the country since independence. Each of Malaysia's six Prime Ministers has been a member of UMNO, which defines itself as a right-wing Malay nationalist party.
- Synonyms: UMNO
- Synonyms: UMNO
United National Independence Party - The United National Independence Party (UNIP) is a Zambian political party. Led by Kenneth Kaunda, it governed Zambia from 1964 until 1991, when it lost power to the MMD.
- Synonyms: UNIP
- Synonyms: UNIP
United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations - The United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (UNCTC) was established in 1974 on the recommendation of the United Nations Group of Eminent Persons. Its specific remit was to establish a code of conduct for business on the international stage, though it was abolished in 1993 and its functions integrated into the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was a major conference of 172 governments held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. It is also known as the ‘Rio Summit’ or the ‘Earth Summit’, and resulted in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, articulating 27 principles intended to promote sustainable development around the world.
- Synonyms: UNCED
- Synonyms: UNCED
Unity Accord of 1987 - The Unity Accord of 1987 was a political agreement signed between Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo in Zimbabwe to end the violence that had started in Matabeland in the wake of the Rhodesian Bush War. The Accord effectively dissolved Nkomo’s Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) into Mugabe’s Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), creating ZANU-PF (Patriotic Front).
UNTAG - United Nations Transition Assistance Group. A United Nations force that operated in Namibia from 1989 to 1990. It monitored elections and the transition to independence.
UPR - The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a mechanism of the United Nations Human Rights Council and was established in 2006. It periodically evaluates the human rights performance of UN member states.
USAID - The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the American government agency responsible for administering civilian foreign aid, with a specific focus on the eradication of poverty. USAID was established by John F Kennedy in 1971 and its work is funded by Congress.