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OAU -  Organisation of African Unity. Founded in 1963 to act as a collective voice for African Nations, it was replaced by the African Union in 2002.
ODA -  Overseas Development Administration. A department of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office with responsibility for overseas aid from 1970 to 1974 and from 1979 to 1997.
OECD -  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. An global economic organisation of 34 countries to promote economic progress and international trade, founded in 1961.
Official Secrets Act -  British legislation, first enacted in 1889, that seeks to protect state secrets.
Oginga Odinga -  Oginga Odinga (1911-1994). Kenyan politician and Vice-President (1964-1966).
Ogoni people -  Ethnic group of southwest Nigeria.
Olaf Caroe -  Sir Olaf Caroe (1892-1981) was a British colonial administrator who served as Chief Commissioner of Balochistan (1937-38) and Governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1946-47).
Olara Otunnu -  Olara A Otunnu is a Ugandan Lawyer and President of the Uganda People’s Congress. He has a long history of involvement with the United Nations, serving as Uganda’s Ambassador and Permanent Representative from 1980 to 1985, during which he acted as President of the Security Council (1981) an Vice-President of the General Assembly (1982-83). From 1998 to 2005, Otunnu was UN Under-Secretary General and Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict.
Old Budonian -  An ‘Old Budonian’ is an alumnus of King’s College Budo, a residential secondary school in Wakiso District, central Uganda. It is one of the oldest centres of higher learning in the country and counts among its former students many Ugandan Presidents and members of royal families.
Old Commonwealth -  An informal term describing the countries of the pre-1945 Commonwealth: Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Oliver Tambo -  Oliver Tambo (1917-1993). South African politician and anti-apartheid campaigner.
Olusegun Obasanjo -  Olusegun Obasanjo (b. 1937). Nigerian Head of Federal Military Government (1976-1979) and President (1999-2007). He was Co-Chairman of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa (1985-1986).
- Synonyms: General Obasanjo
Omar al-Bashir -  Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (b.1944) is a Sudanese political and military figure who became President of Sudan in 1989 following a coup. In 2009, he became the first sitting President to be indicted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur.
- Synonyms: Bashir
One China policy -  The One China policy refers to a diplomatic position in which a country recognises the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the sole legitimate representative of China, requiring them to break relations with the Tawian-based Republic of China (ROC), which also claims status as legitimate representative. This position can be held in reverse, i.e. recognising the ROC and thus breaking relations with the PRC.
One World Action -  A British charity that promotes social justice and democracy, founded in 1989.
OPCs -  Other People’s Cigarettes.
Operation Lalang -  Operation Lalang (Operasi Lalang) was a Malaysian police action in October 1987 to forestall an outbreak of racial riots in the country. 106 individuals – including NGO activists, student politicians, artists and opposition figures – were detained without trial under conditions outlined in the Internal Security Act.
Operation Murambatsvina -  ‘Operation Drive Out Rubbish’. A Zimbabwean slum clearance programme, that started in 2005.
Operation Urgent Fury -  Operation Urgent Fury was the name given to the 1983 US-led invasion of Grenada, prompted by the killing of the revolutionary Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and a split in the ruling New Jewel Movement. The invasion, which saw the swift success of American troops, led to the restoration of the pre-revolutionary regime. The action was criticized by Britain and Canada, as well as by a proposed United Nations Security Council resolution subsequently vetoed by the US.
Orange Free State -  Afrikaner state, founded in 1854. It was defeated by the British and incorporated into South Africa in 1902.
Organisation of African Unity -  An international organisation for African states founded in 1963.
Organisation of American States -  The Organisation of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 as an inter-continental body promoting regional cooperation and collaboration. Headquartered in Washington, DC, the OAS includes 35 member states. In 2015, the Uruguayan lawyer and politician Luis Almagro was appointed Secretary General.
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States -  The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), created in 1981, is an inter-governmental organisation focused on economic cooperation and the protection of human and legal rights in countries in the Eastern Caribbean.
- Synonyms: OECS
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation -  The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an international organisation based out of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which promises to act as the “collective voice of the Muslim World.” Founded in 1969 as the 'Organisation of the Islamic Conference', it includes 57 member states and has permanent delegations to the United Nations and European Union.
- Synonyms: OIC
Organisation of the Islamic Conference -  The Organisation of the Islamic Conference was founded in 1969 to act as the “collective voice of the Muslim World”. Based out of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it includes 57 member states and has permanent delegations to the United Nations and European Union. In 2011, the name was changed to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
Oslo Accords -  A 1993 agreement that sought to establish a framework for resolving prolonged disputes over the relationship between Israel and Palestine.
Otto Krause -  Otto Krause (1930-1999) was an Afrikaner journalist who founded and ran the news magazine News Check from 1966 to 1971. He was later Editor of the Financial Gazette and a prominent political commentator in the South African media.
Our nuclear weapons -  The South African government’s atomic weapons programme began in the 1960s. Six nuclear weapons are thought to have been constructed which were dismantled in the late 1980s, before the transition to majority rule.
- Synonyms: South African nuclear programme
Owen Arthur -  Owen Arthur (b. 1949). Prime Minister of Barbados from 1994 to 2008.
Owen Dixon -  Sir Owen Dixon (1886-1972) was an Australian diplomat and judge. From 1952 to 1964 he was Chief Justice of Australia, having served on the High Court since 1929.
- Synonyms: Chief Justice Dixon
Oxford Colonial Record Project -  A project (1963-1972) run under the auspices of the University of Oxford, to collect archives from former colonial officials and others who worked in colonies.