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G15 - The Group of 15 (G15) was established at the 1989 Non-Aligned Movement Summit meeting in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and brings together countries from Latin America, Africa and Asia to coordinate cooperation in the areas of investment, trade and technology.
G20 - Inaugurated in 1999, the Group of Twenty brings together finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
G7 - The group of 7 nations deemed the most industrialised, first formed in 1975 originally with 6 members.
G8 - The Group of Eight (G8) was a forum for the governments of the eight leading industrialised countries of the world. It began in 1975 as the G6, and the following year became the G7 with the addition of Canada. From 1998 to 2014 it became the G8, reverting to being the G7 with the suspension of Russia as of March 2014.
- Synonyms: G-8
- Synonyms: G-8
Gaddafi - Muammar Gaddafi (1942-2011). Libyan revolutionary and national leader from 1969 to 2011.
Gamani Corea - Dr Gamani Corea (1925-2013) was a Sri Lankan economist and diplomat who served as Secretary-General of UNCTAD from 1974 to 1984. Corea was previously Sri Lanka’s Ambassador to the EEC, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as well as Senior Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Ceylon.
Gang of Four - A faction of Chinese Communist Party officials - Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen - who came to prominence during the Cultural Revolution.
Gareth Evans - Gareth Evans (b. 1944). Australian politician, Foreign Minister from 1988 to 1966.
Garret FitzGerald - Garret FitzGerald (1926-2011) was an Irish politician who served twice as the Taoiseach of Ireland (1981-82, 1982-87). He had previously served as his country’s Foreign Minister (1973-77) and was leader of Fine Gael between 1977 and 1987.
Gaspari Oda - Gaspari Oda was an influential political figure in the early years of Ugandan independence, representing the Democratic Party (DP) as an MP in Parliament.
GATT - The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A multilateral agreement managing international trade, agreed in 1947 and succeeded in 1995 by the World Trade Organisation.
Gavyn Davies - Gavyn Davies (b. 1950). British economist, Chairman of the BBC from 2001 to 2004.
Gemini News Service - The Gemini News Service, founded in 1967 by Derek Ingram, was a pioneering independent news service specialising in the field of international and development journalism. The service prioritised 'on the ground' reportage, focusing much of its work on Commonwealth countries. The news agency closed in 2002; its records are collected in The Guardian News & Media Archive, London.
General Garba - Major General Joseph Garba (1943-2002) was a Nigerian military figure, politician and diplomat who participated in the 1975 coup against General Yakubu Gowon and subsequently served as his country’s Foreign Minister (1975-78). In this position he acted as President of the United Nations Security Council in 1978. Garba later served as Nigeria’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations (1984-89) and, in 1989, was elected President of the UN General Assembly.
General Gowon - General Yakubu 'Jack' Dan-Gumma Gowon (b. 1934). Nigerian soldier and military Head of State (1966-1975).
- Synonyms: Gowon
- Synonyms: Gowon
General Lule - Yusu Kironde Lule (1912-1985) was leader of the Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF) in the 1970s and was installed as provisional President of Uganda following the ousting of Idi Amin in 1979. His brief period in power ended when the National Consultative Commission replaced him with Godfrey Binaisa that same year.
- Synonyms: Yusuf Lule
- Synonyms: Yusuf Lule
General McNaughton - General Andrew GL McNaughton (1887-1966) was a Canadian diplomat and soldier. A distinguished army officer in both the First and Second World Wars, McNaughton later chaired the UN Atomic Energy Commission (1946-58) and was Canada’s Ambassador to the UN (1948-49). He chaired the Canadian Section of the International Joint Commission from 1950 to 1962.
General Walls - Lieutenant General George Peter Walls (1927-2010) was a Rhodesian military figure who served as Commander of the Rhodesian military from 1977 to 1980. Following the independence of Zimbabwe, Walls lived in exile in Eastern Cape, South Africa.
- Synonyms: Peter Walls
- Synonyms: Peter Walls
General Zia - Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (1924-88). Pakistani soldier and politician. As Chief of Army Staff he declared martial law in 1977, deposed then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and became President of Pakistan, 1978-88.
Geneva Accord - A 1988 agreement between the governments of Angola, Cuba and South Africa about the withdrawal of foreign troops from the Angolan civil war.
Geoffrey Howe - Geoffrey Howe (b. 1926). Lord Howe of Aberavon. British politician, held various Cabinet positions in Margaret Thatcher’s government including Foreign Secretary (1983-1989).
- Synonyms: Lord Howe
- Synonyms: Lord Howe
Geoffrey Kariithi - Geoffrey Kariithi (1925-2012) was a prominent Kenyan political figure who acted as Head of the Civil Service under Jomo Kenyatta’s post-independence government. He was later an Assistant Minister for Daniel Arap Moi.
Geoffrey Wilson - Sir Geoffrey Wilson (1910-2004) was a British public servant and diplomat who held influential positions in the Foreign Office in the 1950s and with the World Bank from 1958 to 1966. Wilson was later Deputy Secretary (1966-68) and Permanent Secretary (1968-70) of the UK’s Ministry of Overseas Development, and in 1971 was appointed chairman of the Race Relations Board. From 1977 to 1983 he was chairman of Oxfam.
Georg Meiring - General Georg Meiring (b.1939) was a South African military figure who served as the first Chief of the South African National Defence Force from 1994 to 1998. He was also the last Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) from 1993 to 1994.
George Bush - George Walker Bush (b. 1946). President of USA (2001-2009).
George Cadle Price - George Cadle Price (1919-2011) was a Belizean political figure who served as First Minister and Premier of British Honduras/Belize (1961-1981) and, following independence in 1981, twice as Prime Minister of Belize (1981-84 and 1989-93). He is considered the ‘Father of the Nation’ in Belize and was associated with the People’s United Party in the country.
- Synonyms: George Price
- Synonyms: George Price
George Chambers - George Michael Chambers (1928-1997) was a Trinidadian political figure who served as Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 1981 to 1986, Chambers was Political Leader of the People’s National Movement from 1981 to 1987.
George HW Bush - George Herbert Walker Bush (b.1924) is an American political figure who served as President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he had previously served as Vice President under Ronald Reagan (1981-89) and was Director of the Central Intelligence Agency(1976-77).
George Magezi - George Magezi was a Uganda People’s Congress leader in Bunyoro, western Uganda, and an influential political figure during Uganda’s transition to independent rule (1958-1962).
George Speight - George Speight (b. 1957). Businessman. He was a key instigator of the 2000 Fijian coup.
George Thomson - George Thomson, Baron Thomson of Monifieth (1921-2008). British politician, and a member of the Labour Party, Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Democrats. He was Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, 1967-68.
George W Bush - George Walker Bush (b.1946) is an American political figure and businessman who served as President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was previously Governor of Texas (1995-2000), and before entering politics was involved in the American oil industry.
Georges Simenon - Georges Simenon (1903-1989) was a Belgian novelist who published nearly 200 novels during his writing career. He lived in France for much of his life, with periods also spent in the United States, Canada and Switzerland.
Gerald Hensley - Gerald Hensley, b.1935. Former New Zealand diplomat who served as Special Assistant to the Commonwealth Secretary General when the Secretariat was established in 1965. He later served various positions under the Robert Muldoon and David Lange governments in New Zealand, including Secretary of Defense. In 2000, Hensley chaired the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group in its work in Papua New Guinea.
Gerry Helleiner - Professor Gerry Helleiner is a Canadian economist and political advisor associated with the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. From 1991 to 1999, he was Research Director of the Group of 24 caucus at the IMF and World Bank, and has chaired the Boards of the North South Institute in Ottawa and the International Food Policy Institute (IFPRI) in Washington. He has taught in Canada, Nigeria, Tanzania, the United States, and the UK.
Gibraltar referendum - A referendum over the future of Gibraltar held in 1967. Over 99% of votes favoured British sovereignty.
Gill Marcus - Gill Marcus (b.1949) is a South African politician and banker who served as Governor of the South African Reserve Bank from 2009 to 2014. Marcus had previously been Deputy Governor under Tito Mboweni from 1999 to 2004.
Gilligan affair - A controversy over the reporting of BBC journalist Andrew Gilligan, that led to his resignation in 2004.
Girija Shankar Bajpai - Sir Girija Shankar Bajpai (1891-1954) was an Indian diplomat and civil servant, holding influential positions in both the British colonial and post-independence administrations. Appointed to the Viceroy’s Executive Council in 1940, he became India’s First Secretary General, Ministry of External Affairs, following the transfer of power in 1947, holding this position until 1952.
Giscard d’Estaing - Valéry Giscard d’Estaing (b.1926) is a French political figure who served as President of the French Republic from 1974 to 1981. He had previously served as Minister of Economy and Finance (1969-74) and Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs (1962-66). D’Estaing is a proponent of a United States of Europe and a member of the French Constitutional Council.
Gleneagles Agreement - The Gleneagles Agreement was approved by Commonwealth leaders in Gleneagles, Scotland in 1977, supporting an international campaign against apartheid. Click here to read the Agreement in full.
Glenys Kinnock - Glenys Kinnock (b. 1944). British politician, served as a minister from 2009 to 2010.
Global Environment Facility - The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a partnership formed between 183 countries and a variety of international institutions, civil society organisations and private sector bodies to address global environmental issues. Established in 1991, the GEF is now the world’s largest public funder for projects aiming to improve the global environment.
Goa Declaration - The Goa Declaration was a statement on International Security made by Commonwealth Leaders from Fort Aguada, Goa, India, in 1983. In the Declaration, the leaders condemned the extension of nuclear arsenals in the context of the Cold War and called for resources to be devoted to development partnerships rather than weaponry. A copy is available online via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation Archive.
Goebbels - Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945). German politician who was Minister of Propaganda (1933-1945) in Hitler’s government.
Goldstone Commission - A South African government Commission appointed in 1991 to inquire into political violence.
Gonzi - Lawrence Gonzi (b. 1953). Maltese politician. He was leader of the Nationalist Party and Prime Minister of Malta, 2004-13. He was Chairperson-in-Office of the Commonwealth, 2005-07.
Gorbachev - Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931). Final leader of the Soviet Union (1985-1991).
Gordon Brown - James Gordon Brown (b. 1951). British politician. He was Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party, 2007-10 and Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1997-2007.
Gordon Goundrey - Gordon Goundrey (1923-2006) was a Canadian development economist and diplomat who spent twenty-two years as an adviser to the United Nations, retiring in 1982 as Assistant Secretary General in the Office for Special Political Questions. Goundrey worked frequently with the technical assistance arm of the Commonwealth Secretariat and, throughout his career, led approximately 120 missions to Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. He was appointed Professor of Economics at Newfoundland’s Memorial University in 1953.
Gordon Goundry - Professor Gordon Goundry is a Canadian economist who served the Commonwealth Fund for Technical co-operation as the Head of the Technical Assistance Group (TAG). Goundry later worked in the United Nations as Assistant Secretary-General in the Office for Special Political Questions and Joint Coordinator of Special Economic Assistance Programmes.
Gough Whitlam - Edward Gough Whitlam (1916-2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
Govan Mbeki - Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910-2001). South African politician and anti-apartheid activist. He is the father of the former South African President Thabo Mbeki.
Grace Ibingira - Grace SK Ibingira was a leader in the Uganda People’s Congress during the country’s post-independence period, appointed as Minister of Justice in 1962. He was Secretary-General of the UPC from 1964 and, during the 1966 Constitutional Crisis, was arrested with other members of the Obote Cabinet.
Grantley Adams - Grantley Adams (1898-1971). A Barbadian politician, served as Prime Minister of Barbados (1953-1958) and Prime Minister of the West Indian Federation (1958-1962).
Great Trek - The migration of Afrikaner farmers away from British influence in the Cape during the 1830s and 1840s. A foundational moment in Afrikaner identity.
Greg Dyke - Greg Dyke (b. 1947). British journalist, Director-General of the BBC from 2000 to 2004.
Grenada invasion - The United States’ 1983 invasion of Grenada. The invasion was triggered by a coup in Grenada, but was opposed by Britain and Canada, partly because Grenada was a member of the Commonwealth.
Gro Harlem Brundtland - Gro Harlem Brundtland (b. 1939). Norwegian politician and diplomat. She was Norwegian Prime Minister 1981, 1986-89 and 1990-96 and later became Director-General of the World Health Organization, 1998-2003.
Groucho Marx - Groucho Marx (1890-1977). American comedian.
Group of 77 - The Group of 77 is a coalition of United Nations member states, primarily composed of developing nations, who collaborate in UN negotiations to promote their collective economic interests. The Group was founded on 15 June 1964 at the UN Conference on Trade and Development.
- Synonyms: G-77
- Synonyms: G-77
Gudral doctrine - Foreign policy doctrine advanced by IK Gudral in his time as India’s Foreign Minister (1996-1998), which called for Indian assistance to its smaller neighbours and peaceful relations in South Asia.
Gukuruhundi killings - 'Gukuruhundi’ refers to the 1984-1987 suppression of Zimbabwean civilians in the wake of the Rhodesian Bush War, when members of the Fifth Brigade brutally crushed supporters of Joseph Nkomo in Matabeleland. The word ‘Gukuruhundi’ is Shona for “the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains”. The violence was ended by the formation of ZANU PF and the establishment of Robert Mugabe as President of Zimbabwe.
Guy Clutten-Brock - Guy Clutten-Brock (1906-1995). An English social worker, and later, Zimbabwean nationalist. He established Cold Comfort Farm, a multi-racial co-operative farm, on the outskirts of Salisbury. He was deported by Ian Smith in 1971.